AN APPRAISAL OF DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF CEILING BOARD USING PLASTER OF PARIS
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This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris [POP] is a white powdery mixture of gypsum. It has been named such because the first deposit of gypsum was found is Paris. This powder when mixed with water solidifies, but without losing its volume.
During manufacturing process, the gypsum is heated and as such, it does not necessarily require any high heat treatment like ceramics and clays [Worrall 1999].
Because of its property to harden with just water, it is used in a number of areas, but most notably for molding decorative objects.
According to Cornelis and Hurlbut (1985), plaster results from the calcinations of gypsum (CaS04.2H20), which partially dehydrates to produce a hemi-hydrate (CaS04.1/2H2O). Although plaster of paris a widely used today: its origin dated 9,000 years old and were found in Amatole and Syria.
It is also know fact those 5000 years ago, the Egyptians burnt gypsum in open-air fire, then crushed it into powder and finally mixed with water to make jointing material for the blocks of monuments, used model of plaster taken directly from the human body.
Plaster of Paris came about in 17000’s as Paris was already the “capital of plaster” (Plaster of Paris) since all the walls of wooden houses were covered with plaster, as a protection against fire.
The king of France had enforced this rule after the bug London fire literally destroyed this city in 1666.
Large gypsum deposits near paris have long been mined a manufacture “Plaster of Paris.
Gypsum is a sedimentary rock, which settled though the evaporation of sea water, tapped in lagoons.
According to the nature of its impurities, gypsum can show various colors, ranging from white to brown, yellow, gray and pink.
In order to produce high-quality plaster of paris, great effort needed to be put in clearing and classifying gypsum in order to prepare it for plaster. The chemical reaction is:
(CaS04.2H2O) + Heat = (CaS04.1/2H2O) + 1.5H2O
Deer et al. (1992) describe plaster of Paris is a calcium sulfate hem-hydrate. (CaS04.1/2H2O) derived from gypsum.
It is obtained by firing this mineral at relatively low temperature and then reducing it to powder.
The hem-hydrate is also known as stucco or plaster of Paris- probably so named because of the very large deposit of pure gypsum found beneath Paris. When water is added to the stucco, the material rehydrates to give a solid mass of gypsum.
This rehydration is accompanied by an increase in temperature and a slight expansion of the plaster, causing the gypsum to perfectly fill a mold.
Most of the plaster, produced is used in the production of Gib board and fibrous plaster, with about 80% being used for Gib alone.
This is because plaster is of great importance to the building industry as a fire retardant. When slowly release 200g of water in the form of steam.
This water acts as a heat barrier, ensuing that the temperature behind the plaster board does not rise appreciably above the boiling point of water and thus preventing the fire from crossing over the board.
As there is growing building construction activities and advancement in technology, POP gypsum board are used in Houses and offices and indeed all type of building where people congregate such as schools, halls, churches, Mosques, etc.
Plaster of Paris ceiling board provides more aesthetic outlook, offer adequate resistance to heat and sufficient resistance to fire
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Recent studies indicate that asbestos ceiling is hazardous material from the health point of view.
A particular type of lung cancer called mesothelioma, is caused by asbestos regular lung cancer may be a sign of asbestos poisoning as well.
Therefore, there is need for alternative ceiling material which is durable, reliable and affordable.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to design and produce ceiling board using plaster of paris (POP) gypsum materials.
The objectives of the study is highlighted below:
To produce durable light weight building material for ceiling
To determine the strength of the ceiling board
To determine its durability.
To determine the volume and density of the ceiling board.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The use of plaster of paris [POP] gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of plaster of paris [POP] gypsum material as ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable absorption of heart from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to the producer.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and production of ceiling board using plaster of paris [POP] gypsum material. In the project , the density of the sample will be determined and the flexural test will be carried out to determine the strength of the sample made up of composite quantity of POP plaster, water and fibre [know as villas] when subjected to loading.