AN APPRAISAL OF INSTITUTIONAL VARIABLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
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Teaching-learning facilities are essential ingredients in any school setting especially at the primary school level of education.
It is based on this fact that this study examined the relationship between institutional variables (teaching aids, classroom environment and library facilities) and pupils’ academic performance in Yewa Local Government Area of Ogun State.
The researcher adopted descriptive survey design of correlation type for the study.
The population comprised 33,736 students in the 44 public primary schools in Yewa Local Government of Ogun State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 180pupils from the 15 randomly select schools. Research instruments tagged “Institutional Variables Questionnaire” (IVQ) and “Pupils’ Academic Performance Prodromal” (PAPP) were used to obtain relevant data.
The instruments were validated through content and construct validities by the project supervisor and three lecturers in the Department of Educational Management, University of Ilorin.
Test re-test reliability method established yielded 0.72 for IVQ.
Inferential statistics of Pearson Product-Moment Correlation statistic was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance respectively.
The findings of the study revealed that: There was a significant relationship between teaching aids and pupils’ academic performance in Yewa Local Government Area of Ogun State;
There was a significant relationship between classroom environment and pupils’ academic performance in Yewa Local Government Area of Ogun State;
There was a significant relationship between library facilities and pupils’ academic performance in Yewa Local Government Area of Ogun State.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others, that Government should strive towards provision of adequate teaching aids in primary schools so as to arouse the interest of pupils during teaching.
Background to the Study
Primary education as the first stage of basic education is the foundation of any educational system. If this foundation is not strong enough, the whole educational system will be weakened. Over several decades there has been gradual deterioration in the facilities provided by the government for the running of education at the primary school level. Adeyemi (2007) posited that in public schools, pupils learning environment typically has few facilities, and that many classes had up to 50 pupils which is higher than the 30 to 40 pupils as indicated in the National Policy on Education( Federal Government of Nigeria, (2004). Asiabaka (2007) lamented the unhealthy nature of school buildings, with some uncompleted, antiquated, and sometimes dilapidated.
Asiabaka also lamented the overcrowded sand un-conducive classrooms, unsightly and unhygienic toilets, inadequate laboratories and workshops.
With these short comings, he posited that pupils start learning in already deprived and disadvantaged school environment. He noted further that in several primary schools in most parts of the country, the buildings were either half completed or dilapidated.
He painfully noted that population explosion, insufficient desks, overcrowded classrooms, inadequate learning materials, preponderance of unqualified teachers, poorly educated and ill-motivated teachers characterized the entire system, and that many school administrators focused mainly on infrastructural facilities such as buildings, classrooms, chairs, tables and so on but neglected other school facilities as well as the school environment.
School facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative education.
The importance to teaching and learning of the provision of adequate instructional facilities for education cannot be over-emphasized.
The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make the students learn, but students can learn without the teachers. According to Akande( 2005) learning can occur through one’s interaction with one’s environment.
Environment here refers to facilities that are available to facilitate students learning outcome.
It includes books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology; so also, size of classroom, sitting position and arrangement, availability of tables, chairs, chalkboards, shelves on which instruments for practical’s are arranged (Farrant, 2000 and Farombi, 2002).
According to Oni (2003), facilities constitute a strategic factor in organizational functioning. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any social organization or system including education.
He further stated that their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity.
In his words, Farombi (2009) opined that the wealth of a nation or society could determine the quality of education in that land; emphasizing that a society that is wealthy will establish good schools with quality teachers, learning infrastructures that with such, students may learn with ease thus bringing about good academic achievement. Writing on the role of facilities in teaching, Balogun (2000) submitted that no effective science education programme can exist without equipment for teaching.
This is because facilities enable the learner to develop problem-solving skills and scientific attitudes.
In their contribution, Ajayi and Ogunyemi (2005) reiterated that when facilities are provided to meet relative needs of a school system, students will not only have access to the reference materials mentioned by the teacher, but individual students will also learn at their own paces.
A school library is useful in literacy work from the earliest stage because it encourages good reading habits to be formed when children are young.
Nothing is as important to the quality of library services provided to library patrons whether academic, public, special or school library as the quality and range of resources selected, acquired and retained by a library.
A school library may be seen by some to be small and inconsequential but if the fact that it is part of the overall school system is critically looked at, it becomes obvious that as much as the collection of a university library is important to its community, so also is the collection of a school library to its pupils and staff (Badawi, 2004).
The importance of libraries and their collections in the school system cannot be overemphasized. Effective teaching and learning requires the support of librarians and well-stocked libraries. Similarly, meaningful study and learning demand adequate provision of library services (Fadero, 2001). The Taiwo Commission (2000) on the review of the failed first Universal Free Education System, launched in the defunct Western Region noted that there was an appalling shortage of reading materials in most of the schools in the then Western region.
The Commission observed further that very little consideration was given to the building up of libraries and to the inculcating in pupils the culture of using the library.
Several studies have shown that library usage cannot be divorced from academic performance.
The Ontario Library Association (2006) using a huge sample (800 elementary schools, 50,000 students, with a sample specifically of grades 3 and 6) showed correlations between library staffing and reading performance in both grades, as well as a decline in enjoyment of reading correlating with a decline in staffing of libraries.
Dent (2006), similarly found in a study of three Ugandan schools with varying levels of library access, that those students with library access scored higher in particular subjects than those who did not have access.
Bamidele (2011) also show a correlate between library use and performance in a research carried out at the Huddersfield University.
Well-equipped libraries are necessities in all institutions and especially in primary schools since they are the foundations for basic education.
Well equipped school libraries not only enrich the curriculum but also serve as the common laboratory of every school, providing leadership in the teaching of everything in the sciences, humanities, management and in fact, all fields of endeavor.
Libraries are places where information services are rendered to users. Catering for the needs of users, in the context of the libraries, ideally means the provision of physical and bibliographic access to information sources (Oyewumi, 2006) and (Aina 2011).
It is sad therefore to note that despite the importance of a well-stocked library, it is generally denied the attention that it deserves in major education plans especially pertaining to public primary schools in Nigeria.
Library and academic performance is an essential factor in teaching- learning process. It forms one of the most important educational services.
The chief purpose of an institution’s library is to make available to the pupil, at his easy convenience, all books, periodicals and other reproduced materials which are of interest and value to him but which are not provided or assigned to him as basic or supplementary textbooks.
The importance of library has been demonstrated by the government when he expressed in the National policy on Education (NPE, 2004).that every state Ministry needs to provide funds for establishment of libraries in all her educational institutions and to train librarians and library assistances. As resource, it occupies a central and primary place in any school system.
It supports all functions of School- teaching and provides service and guidance to its readers.
According to Fowowe (2001) a library must be up-to-date and at the same time allow access to order materials. Ola (1990) opined that institution library in whatever form, has replaced the traditional method of ‘chalk and talk’ in imparting knowledge to students that its effect on student learning effectiveness need not to be over-emphasized.
He concluded that a well equipped library is a major facility which enhances good learning and achievement of high educational standard.
In his words, Farombi (2010) reiterated that school library may not be effective if the books therein are not adequate and up-to-date as its impact may only be meaningful if the library could be opened to the students always for a considerable length of time in a school day.
Hay and Stuart (2005) in a research conducted on school libraries in Australia found out that there is a strong relationship between the collection of a library and patronage.
Their research showed that more pupils visited a well-stocked library and this further boosted high academic performance because they usually have the perception that the library will supply their academic needs.
Reading skills involve thinking skills.
The extent to which young people use information depends upon their ability to understand what they read, to integrate their understanding with what they already know and to realize their unanswered questions. To this end, school libraries model and collaboratively provide the much needed support.
Academic performance and library use cannot be separated.
Kumar (2012) noted that the performance of students can be considerably improved if they use the library regularly. A school library does not exist in isolation but exists to serve the objectives of the parent organization.
The objective of a good educational system is to equip pupils to be able to play their role in the society effectively.
The library attempts to advance the objectives of the school and the aim of a good school library is to become a force for educational excellence (Wong and Webb, 2011). 3 Kumar (2012) again noted that patronage of a school library is enhanced when the library is well equipped, book and non-book materials are readily available for use and the library staff is ready and willing to assist the pupils in their search for information.
Classroom environment and academic performance in primary school, the classroom environment seems to be an important motivating factor that makes the teaching and learning process.
It is pertinent to note that the curriculum or the content of the school syllabus is being implemented mainly within the four walls of the classroom, (usually under the formal school system) through professional teachers who happen to be the curriculum implementers.
It appears that the quality of teaching would likely affect the learning of many primary & secondary school subjects and learning program, this perhaps may be as a result of the state of the classroom environment.
Globally, formal classroom systems can be found in every citadel of learning in all countries across the globe, be it developed or developing countries, depending on the types, shapes, class and academic environment in which they are situated.
The classroom according to Adesua (2014) environment is an important, most powerful and effective instrument of socialization where learners from different socio-economic backgrounds come together to learn.
Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds including public and private schools home schools, corporations, religious and humanitarian organizations.
For lessons that require specific resources or vocational approach, different types of classrooms both indoors and outdoors are used.
Class-size is also one the challenged that deny the smooth running of learning activities in public primary schools and secondary school in Nigeria.
Class-size is an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school.
Hoffman described it as the number of students per teacher in a class. Kedney (2008) said that, it can be used to measure the performance of the education system.
In relation to size, Stepaniuk (2006) reported that the rational utilization of classroom space depends upon class-size.
This in turn would depend upon the area of the classroom.
He argued that there are approved norms of class-size, 40 pupils per class from grades 1 to 8 and 35 pupils per class for the senior classes; while the standard allocation of class space per pupil is 1:25 square meters’.
In this regard, Dean compared class-size in some countries and found that Turkey, Norway and Netherlands had class-size more than 20 or more; UK, USA, Japan, Canada and Ireland had size.
Class-size of 15 and 20 while France, Sweden, arguments and reported that effective teaching seems Denmark, Austria, Italy, Luxembourg and Belgium had impracticable for teacher educators having large class-sizes of below 15.
In Nigeria, Okoro (2005) reported that the class-size in secondary schools ranges between 35 or 40 students.
He argued that few pupils per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials.
Adeyemi (2001) reported that average classroom influences the cost of education.
While capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average class-size in schools while Nwadiani (2004) argued that the higher the class-size the lower the cost of education.
He contended however, that most classrooms are over-crowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education.
Ajayi(2007) supported the view points and argued that in order to control rising capital cost of -the average class-size could be increased.
Academic performance of students especially at the primary school level is not only a pointer to the effectiveness or otherwise of schools but a major determinant of the future of youths in particular and the nation in general.
The medium through which the attainment of individuals and the nation’s educational goals can be achieved is learning.
Learning outcomes have become a phenomenon of interest to all and this account for the reason why scholars have been working hard to unravel factors that militate against good academic performance (Aremu & Sokan, 2002).
This phenomenon has been variedly referred to in literature as academic achievement, or scholastic functioning. Academic achievement of learners has attracted attention of scholars, parents, policy –makers and planners.
In an attempt to put sound education on ground worldwide, many factors have been incriminated as being responsible for falling standard of education where it is perceived and established.
Among such factors is the issues of ‘’class size’’ .
Adeyemi (2008) defined class size as an educational tool that can be described as an average number of students per class in a school, while Hoffman (2002) described it as the number of students per teacher in a class.
Kedney (2000) described it as a tool that can be used to measure performance of the education system.
A lot of argument has gone on the impact of class size on performance, some fingering over-bloated class size as the main factor responsible for falling standard of education, most especially in the elementary or secondary level of education in Nigeria, however others see this as mere coincidence seeing other factors as being responsible.
Class size is an important factor with respect to academic performance of students.
There is a consensus among researchers and educational scholars that, student’s achievement decreases as class size increases.
The effect of class- size on cognitive achievement has been debated and researched for many years, this has been inconclusive. Class size refers to educational tools that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school.
In emphasizing the importance of class-size to the learning teaching process, ALL Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS) recommended a maximum of forty students per class for efficient and effective teaching.
Teaching aids and academic performance, the influence of instructional materials in promoting student’s academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable.
The teaching generally in Nigerian primary schools needs to be properly handled.
The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.
Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners.
They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (2009).
Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others.
These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational process.
Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc.
Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process.
It enhances the memory level of the students.
At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (Raw 2006).
According to Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process.
Obanga (2005) view them as materials things which are use to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual use impact the instructional materials.
The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement.
Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behavior that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment.
Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future.
Use of instructional materials can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort.
Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goals he want to attain.
Brown (2005) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows:
• It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning.
• They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent.
• They help to overcome the limited classroom by making the inaccessible accessible.
• They provide a common experience upon which late learning can be developed.
They stimulate and motivate students to learn.
• They encourage participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate materials used.
Osuala (2010) in his own contribution said it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the student, but also help to bring about an enhance respect for teachers knowledge of the subject. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or both to the sense organs during teaching (Aginna-Obu 2000).
The nature of the learning and the wide range of student’s abilities in the average classroom necessitate a high degree of teachers and experience in the method of presenting the subject matter.
This has been truncated with the unavailability of instructional materials in schools.
However, a common goal a teacher carries wherever he is, is to make lesson presentation vitally fresh, stimulating and testing for their students.
This will help the teacher to individualize the learning method as well as the content and also working according to the student’s need.
This goal can be reached most effectively through the use of instructional materials.
The need to emphasis on the use and importance of instructional materials in any learning and teaching environment cannot be underestimated.
For any learning to take place, the teacher has to make use of these materials that would enable him to teach effectively.
Equipment and other instructional materials to the some extent determine the method the teacher uses in teaching biology.
The method adopted could be demonstration, experimental, Discussion etc.
It is generally agreed by both teachers and school administrator that apart from the chalkboard and textbooks which are often available for the teacher to use, there are other materials that aid or are capable of complementing the teacher’s effort in teaching/learning process.
Those materials are commonly called “instructional materials”. One of the reasons why students in our primary schools sometime find it difficult to comprehend immediately what is being taught by the teacher is the non availability of instructional materials that can easily convey the message of the lesson to the learners.
Orji (2000) asserted that teaching aid is “the guidance of learning activities” that “a teacher uses to motivate and arouse student’s desire to learn “From the fore-going statement, it can be agreed that for effective learning to take place, a student need to be properly guided by the teacher by way of employing various method and mean.
Statement of the Problem
The state of Institutional variable’s in public primary schools in Yewa South Local Government Ogun State today appears to be of great concern to students, parents and all educators.
These seems to be inadequate provision of this facilities, some of the existing ones seems to be in a dilapidated state, while some seems lack good maintenance or may not function at all.
Teachers find it difficult to carryout effective instruction in schools.
They also encounter difficulties in the implementation of continuous assessment and this has been linked to problem of institutional facilities.
Moreover, there seems to be an increase in population of students due to high enrolment rate.
A close observation of student’s performance seems to indicate lack of inadequate physical facilities and an enabling learning environment that could motivate, primary students towards high performance.
It seems that where these facilities are lacking, students develop non-challant attitudes toward learning.
The administrators on their own side encounter a lot of difficulties in the administration of the Institution due to non-available ones.
These problems and concerns necessitated investigating into the relevance of Institution variables on students’ and academic performance.
Those facilities comprises of library, class-size, Teaching-aids and Furniture equipment.
Therefore an institution with poor planned environment will find it difficult to achieve the educational objectives.
Hoyle (2012) argued that schools are established with the aim of imparting knowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all this is the idea of enhancing good academic performance.
This study therefore investigated the relationship between institutional variables and pupil’s academic performance.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between institutional variables such as library, classroom environment, teaching-aids and pupil’s academic performances in basic science at yewa south local government Ogun state. Specifically, it sought:
1. To determine the relationship between library and student’s academic performances at primary schools Yewa south local government Ogun state.
2. To identify the relationship between classroom environment and academic performances of student’s at primary schools Yewa south local government Ogun State.
3. To examine the relationship between Teaching aids and academic performances of student’s at primary schools Yewa south local government Ogun State.
The following research questions were raised to give direction to the study:
1. What is the relationship between library facilities and student’s academic performance at Primary School’s Yewa south local government Ogun State.
2. What is the relationship between Classroom environment and student’s academic performance at primary schools Yewa south local government Ogun state.
3. What is the relationship between Teaching- aids and student’s academic performance at primary school’s Yewa south local government Ogun state.
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide this study:
H01: There is no significant relationship between the library facilities and student’s academic performance at primary school’s Yewa south local government Ogun state.
H02: There is no significant relationship between Classroom environment and student’s academic performance at primary school’s Yewa south local government Ogun State.
H03: Teaching-aids and student’s academic performance are not significantly related at primary school’s Yewa south local government Ogun State.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant, since it is aimed at improving teaching and learning of students also improving the learning of the student’s in both internal and external examination. Issue of school facilities in some primary school has become common occurrence among the schools of the present generation.
This study will enable government to be aware of the schools with little or no school facilities.
It also give pupils an opportunity to become self-reliant by having access to different facilities and equipment tool for series of training.
It is also a beneficiary to school proprietors and school management, to know the extent of which institutional variables are being maintained and how the facilities were being utilized by teachers in other to impact knowledge to students. Teachers who carry out instructions will find it easier and more interesting with the aid of school variables.
This study will play a great role by assisting parents school counselors to discover solutions to the educational problem of pupils that may be lacking behind or performing poorly in their academic.
The institutions administrators will effectively carry-out the general administration of the institution.
In addition, it is hoped that recommendations from this study would be useful to the entire society; also students will be properly instructed by making them efficient and useful to younger researchers who may wish to use it as a reference materials.
Finally, it is hoped that the findings will be helpful to the Ministry of Education and Skills Development so that they can develop effective strategies and policies aimed at addressing facility shortage and maintenance of the existing facilities as these can improve the educational expectation of government in schools.