ASSESSING THE INFLUENCE OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVE DISORDER ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS
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Background of the Study
Individual child have studied to be unique with in understanding and in doing things with pleasure at their own pace.
Impulsive behavior of primary school child on their social skills is embedded in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Impulsivity Inattention and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A child’s academic success is often dependent on his or her ability to attend to tasks and teacher and classroom expectations with minimal distraction.
Such skill enables a pupil to acquire necessary information, complete assignments, and participate in classroom activities and discussions (Forness & Kavale, 2001).
When a child exhibits behaviors associated with ADHD, consequences may include difficulties with recognition of letters and with forming relationships with his or her peers if appropriate instructional methodologies and interventions are not implemented.
The pre-school years are a key period of a child’s development, where the building blocks for later success are laid, and where social, behavioral and academic skills necessary for academic development are acquired.
However, for a minority of pre-school children their pathways to school readiness are compromised; some children encounter difficulties with impulse control, attentional capacity and hyperactivity, which hinder their ability to acquire crucial skills such as focusing on teachers, interacting with peers and authority figures, and learning emergent literacy, mathematics and language (Laheyet al. 1998; Spira & Fischel 2005).
Indeed, ADHD has been identified in 2% of pre-school age children (Lavigneet al. 1996).
The behaviors associated with ADHD change as children grow older.
For example, a preschool child may show gross motor overactivity—always running or climbing and frequently shifting from one activity to another. Older children may be restless and fidget in their seats or play with their chairs and desks.
They frequently fail to finish their schoolwork, or they work carelessly. Adolescents with ADHD tend to be more withdrawn and less communicative. They are often impulsive, reacting spontaneously without regard to previous plans or necessary tasks and homework.
The optimal conditions for academic success require that students come to school physically, mentally, and emotionally available for learning.
In other words, being ready to learn means that when we arrive at school, and throughout our day, we are in control of our bodies, our thoughts, and our feelings.
This is often difficult for a child with ADHD. (Jennifer Flewelling, 2016).
As a nation, we can no longer afford to let at-risk children, including those with ADHD, fail in school.
Their failure not only increases the risk of “dropping out unemployment claiming welfare benefits problems with authority, and penal incarceration,”42 but also deprives society of contributions they could have made had their potential been developed.
Each wasted life is a tragedy.
As educators responsible for the nourishment and growth of future generations, we must find better ways to help children meet our standards and expectations.
We need to take a hard look at how we can reach and teach them where they are. (Appalachia Educational Laboratory, 2018).
Statement of the Problem
The evidence that ADHD is associated with poor academic and education outcomes is overwhelming.
However, studies thus far find that (ADHD), are associated with relatively narrow improvements in core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity at the level of body functions and attending and completing tasks at the level of activities.
This work will shows need prospective, control, and large-scale studies to investigate whether existing or new treatments will improve reading, writing, and mathematics skills; reduce grade retention; reduce expulsions and detentions; improve graduation rates; and increase completion of postsecondary education.
In a literate, information-age society, these improved outcomes are vital to the economic and personal well-being of individuals with ADHD.
Children with ADHD show significant academic underachievement, poor academic performance, and educational problems.
In terms of impairment of body functions, children with ADHD show significant decreases in estimated full-scale IQ compared with controls but score on average within the normal range.(Irene M,Loe MD et al,2007).
Cases of ADHD tend to be concentrated in school-age children; however, research now shows that ADHD also exists in preschool children (Lavigneet al. 1996; Daley et al. 2009).
Above evidences that prompts the researcher to evaluate the influence of attention deficit hyperactive disorder on the academic performance of primary school pupils, in order to create awareness and to show notable characteristics of a child with ADHD that will enable all that are concerned in handling children to be effective.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine influence of attention deficit hyperactive disorder on the academic performance of primary school pupils.
The objectives of the study is stated below:
1. To identify a child with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and how to meet their needs.
2. To improve instruction and teaching methods for the child with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).
3. To suggest possible ways, how attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) pupils can be managed.
Based on the purpose of the study, the following questions are raised to provide a guide and solution to the research problems:
1. What are the academic and educational characteristics of pupils with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD)?
2. How should we design lesson to suit their abilities?
Significance of the Study
The outcome of the study would aid the understanding the effects of ADHD on academic performance empowers parents and teachers to take a proactive stance and teach children the strategies and tools that enable them to overcome obstacles and be fully available for learning.
The finding of this study would also help to help policy makers and educators to design appropriate curriculum and strategies to meet the need of every child irrespective their abilities, as child with attention deficit hyperactive disorder as special as other child.
1. This study will help teachers immensely to take necessary action to any pupil in victim of ADHD.
2. It will help the schools to provide adequate first aid treatment facilities.
3. The findings of this study will enhance pupils academic performance with conducive environment for their learning.