ASSESSING THE SIGNIFIANCE OF MOTIVATION IN ENHANCING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN A COMPETITIVE MARKETING ENVIRONMENT
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Motivation has been defined on different ways by different scholars and the patterns of these definition has helped on understanding motivation better some of these definition are as follows.
Michael (1978) defined motivation as the act of stimulating someone or asset to get a desired course of action to push the button to get a desired reaction.
While Hodgetts (1977) viewed motivation as “the process of creating organizational conditions which well impel employees to strive to attain company goals”
Viteless (1953) says that motivation represents an unsatisfied need which creates a state of tension or disequilibrium, causing the individual to move in a good directed pattern towards restoring a state of equilibrium by satisfying the need.
Kills (1958) says that motivation is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon ones will and prompting or during it into action.
On the other hands, Umukoro (1994) has defined motivation as “the interrelationship between the needs and the fulfillment of the needs”.
Asika (1995) queting Michael (1980) has defined motivation as “those psychological process that course the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary action that are goal directed”.
A motivated person is ready to act, R. stodghill (1959) defined motivation as a function drives and confirmed desirability estimates regarding various alternative satisfaction.
How the motivated person decides to act is influence by us or her perception of the situation. Two people in the same motivated state and objective situation may act quite differently because they perceive the situation differently.
Why do people have different perceptions of the same situation? We start with the nation that all of us is apprehend a stimulus object through sensations, that is flows of information through one or more of our five sense sight, bearing, smell, touch and taste, however, each of us attends, organize and interprets his sensory information in an individual way. In fact, perception can be defined as “the process by which an individual selects, organize and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of world.
A larger part of managers tasks is getting things done through people, he must therefore try and understand peoples motivation. This aspect of the management element of direction is concerned with inducing people to work to best of their ability.
Motivation refers to the way urges, aspirations, drives and needs of human bangs direct their behaviour.
M.D Vernon (1969) defined motivation as the ludden urge within us which compels us to behave in certain ways.
Such urge may be purely instinctive. Motivation is also the process of arousing employees enthusiasm to enable them perform their duties with pleasure and interest in such a way that organizational goals will be achieved.
Motivation may be positive or negative, if it is positive (Carrot approach) when some valuable rewards such as high pay, job security etc are offered for acceptable performance. It is negative (stick approach) when a form of physical, financial or social punishment such as loss of job, loose of income, reduction of or demotion is out to an individual for low performance.
In fact it has been observed that the performance of employees in work jetting or at best in an organization is dependent on the degree of motivation given to the employee by the employers(s), however, employees energy curve well be at lowest when there are perceived inadequate motivation.
In recent times, motivation of workers has been a subject of controversy between workers and management.
A worker (employee) feels satisfied (intrinsic), when he is aptly he motivated, but dissatisfied (maintenance) when he is not motivated. The motivational factors are:
ii. Recognition in work place
iii. Good take home package
iv. Higher responsibility
v. Advancement and growth
vi. Training and development
vii. The work itself
Maintenance factors are:
i. Company polity
ii. Work condition
iv. Relationship with peers
v. Inter-personal relationship with superior
vi. Inter-personal relationship with subordinates
vii. Job security
The above factors are what Fredrick herzberg, referred to as the “two factor theory” but if the above factors the motivational facts are properly harnessed, the employees would perform better in any organization.
Nevertheless, contrary to what motivation is all about, some organizations choose the path of rationalization for the sole aim of not paying a whopping sun as salary.
The workers also have chosen to commit fraud without recourse to equity due to job insecurity occasional by frequent retrenchment exercise.
This is the main reason for sporadic fraud in banks as witnessed in the country on recent time.
In conclusion therefore, it has been noticed and conforded that lack of motivation is the bone of frequent strikes and decreased productivity in an organization; sums up the merits of motivation thus:
i. It enhances individual and organizational growth
ii. It improves productivity and performance
iii. It enhance quality
iv. It improve safety
v. It enhances group dynamism
vi. It enhances corporate image
vii. It enhances good labour management relations
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The modern organization is very complex and profit oriented. Various reasons have been advanced for the performance and low productivity of an average Nigerian worker.
The major problem has been what is or the best means of making workers perform well towards achieving the organization goals.
Various theories on motivation has been postulated by various scholars of international repute and it affects employees performance and productivity. Some of the theories are examined below:
Abraham Maslow of branches University, a prominent student of “Behaviour” has propounded a theory on motivation known as the “hierarchy of need”.
The underlying concept of the theory cannots that human needs are Hierarchical; that a need must be gratified before other needs will predominant.
These needs, according to Maslow, are the physiological) Biological needs, security (safety) needs, social needs, Esteem needs and self, actualization.
He (Maslow) strongly believed that these needs are in linearity.
Another scholar on motivation was claylon P, Alderfer’s needs theory. This theory simply stated that human needs are circumstantial.
These needs are: needs for existence, relatedness and growth. The ERG theory. Alderfer fervently believed that these needs are in a “continuum” tendency to move forward and backward according to situation.
This is a complete aberration from Maslow’s needs hierarchy.
Theory x and y which was postulated by McGregor clearly indicates the inner essence of a worker. A worker detested to work (theory X unless forced, the converse is theory y.
The “Equity” theory which was postulated by S.Adams (1963) generally explains how employers should strive for justice and for play in their places of work and how they are motivated to correct them. Other notable theories are:
i. Frederick Herzberg – two factor theory
ii. Victor room – expectancy theory
iii. David mcclelland – need concept
Conclusively, we have observed that all the aforementioned theories centered on motivation as it affects employees performance in an organization.
Therefore, employees should ensure to see that its employees are adequately motivated to achieved the desired profit maximization objective of the organization, since motivation.
They say increase out.
1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Motivation has been the focal point of interest between employees in an organization especially in banking sector however, the study is limited to united bank for Africa (UBA) plc shall be placed on.
i. Key concepts and theories of motivation in relation to banking
ii. The bulk of the employees in various branches of the bank in lagos including the head office will be used consequently, the research questions will be answered from the data collected from these staff, hence findings shall only be applicable to the above mentioned bank
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
i. The study will be very useful to employers of labour in organization as various concepts of motivation will be adequately addressed.
The study also will help management of the organization (united bank for Africa-UBA) to know in other to motivate them.
the study is also to determine the effect of motivation or individual and group of workers and their actions and reactions towards such aspects of the motivation’s potentials
ii. The study will be useful to the following:
a. The organization: united bank for Africa (UBA) plc on which this study is conducted
b. the employee(s) in organization who is desirous in knowing why motivation has been the issues of controversy between management and employees will also benefit tremendously from this study
c. They society would also gain a lot from this study as various theories on motivation will be highlighted.
d. However, the use of questionnaire is intended to show how and what motivates workers in UBA Plc and probably proffer solutions that will be useful for improvement towards any eventual lapses that may surface during the period of the research work.