Research Key

Vulnerability impact of Livelihood activities to hillslope hazards

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Over the years, there has been an increasing level of hill slope hazards occuring, which is as a result of modern anthropogenic developments. The main objective of this study was to assess the vulnerability of livelihood activities to hill slope hazards in Ndongo, Buea. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources with the use of 100 randomly selected respondents in Ndongo locality. Data analysis was done on Excel and SPSS while result presentation was done using statistical tools like tools and tables and charts. The result



1.1 Introduction

This study is based on the assessment of the vulnerability impact of livelihood activities to Hill slope hazards in Ndongo locality, Buea. This chapter consists of the background of the study, problem statement, research question, objectives, hypothesis, the scope of study, definition of key terms, geography of study area and chapter summary.

1.2 Background of the study

The role of ancient humans within the natural environment was at a time where they did not exercise any Major influence on the ecosystem, Modern humankind after developing science and technology obtained powerful capabilities that now not only threaten human existence but nature itself.

Over the past years, the frequency of hill slope hazard has increased (Lee,2021) due to increasing human usage of the environment (Fell,2018) by communities with lack of environmental knowledge. Some researchers have argued that humans carry some responsibility for increasing hill slope hazards (Achour,2017)

These areas expresses the relationship between rapid economic and population changes and increase environmental risk, that is, as population increased, there is a spread of urban dwellers and agricultural activities leaving people exposed to hazard and they tend to assess vulnerable areas.

According to Winsner, 2004,” people’s vulnerability is constrained by unsafe living conditions, of which they themselves are the result of dynamic pressures and root cause that act at larger geographical and temporal scales.

Hill slope hazards occur worldwide, countries such as USA, India,Afghanistan experience great number of hill slope hazards. USA which ranks the top hits by hill slope hazards, the fatalities are low as compared to those occurring in India and Afghanistan with major fatalities, this only shows that developed countries have greater chances of surviving these impacts because of advancement in technology and medical facilities than those of developing countries as the tend to pay little attention to these hazards which puts them at a greater risk, (Smith,2003),also because they house the greatest population in the world and the rate of poverty is very high. With the growing economy and rising land prices, leads to an ongoing conversation of hazard- prone areas for urban and industrial use, thereby rendering even more people more vulnerable to disasters(Ebert,1995)

Across Africa, the equatorial Africa which is characterized by mountainous topography, intense rainfall, deep weathering profiles, high population density and high vulnerability (Mathieu al.,2021).Countries such as Uganda, Cameroon are places in equatorial Africa which has recorded a great number of hill slope hazard.

Along the Cameroon volcanic line(CVL) in the Northwest, West and Southwest regions of came to on are characterized by steep and highly weathered residual formed on dominantly volcanic soils (Mattew, 2010). These areas would experience hazard as a result of physical and hand activities. Across these regions, they are characterized by intense rainfall which is thought to be the main trigger to these hill slope hazards as well as seismic pressures has been proposed( Ayonghe, 1999), but rather, population pressure on steep slopes and uncontrolled urban sprawl are the key factors proposed to cause the recent increased impact of hill slope hazards, ( Che,2011)

hill slope hazards be it landslides, soil erosion, soil creep are frequently occurring as people tend to occupy and stay on unstable slopes, which as a result puts the population and environment at great damage. This work is designed in response to this problem, with the objective of attaining knowledge that will help reduce the impact hill slope hazards caused by livelihood activities in the Ndongo neighborhood, Buea.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

Slopes are not static but rather dynamic as they are constantly changing, Hans have establish on all land surfaces and it’s causing problems as a result of their activities which brings about severe natural hazards which poses threats to their existence. With this, there is an urgent need to identify the type of hazards possible to occur, so as to analyse the nature of the impending impact.

The recent influx of poor real population in Buea is pushing people to their doom by establishing and carrying out activities on hazard-prone areas. With is problem, we tend to ask these questions; what are the major enviromental hazards that can result due to livelihood on hills lopes?, can we say that this problem will have a devastating impact or an effusive impact with little damage if these hazards are to occur?.This assessment seeks to assess all these problems.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide this long essay.

1.3.1 Main research question

1) What are the impact of livelihood activities can on man and the environment?

1.3.2 Specific research question

1) What are the possible reasons for construction on hill slopes in the Ndongo locality?

2) How does population increase and agricultural practice can result to hazards

3) How can these be minimized?

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