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Background and objectives: Obesity is a global epidemic and is on the rise. It is defined as a body mass index (BMI) that is equal to or more than 30.

It is the number one modifiable risk factor of type 2 diabetes.

This study was undertaken to assess the correlation between BMI and fasting blood sugar (FBS) and also to verify whether age, gender, and socio-economic factors such as alcohol consumption, physical exercise, and level of income impact BMI and FBS levels.
Subjects and Methods: This prospective study included 120 healthy adult individuals who met the inclusion criteria.

Fasting blood samples were collected to measure FBS by the glucose oxidase method. Six individuals were excluded from the study population as their fasting blood glucose levels were in the diabetic range.
Results: Among 120 individuals, a positive correlation was observed (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = + 0.39) between BMI and FBS.

There was a stepwise increase in the magnitude of BMI and FBS with an increase in age in decades. Also, female participants were found to have higher BMI values compared to their male counterparts.

Regular Physical exercise was found to significantly lower BMI and FBS levels.

Alcohol and level of income were found to have no statistically significant effect on BMI and FBS levels.
Discussion and conclusions: The observed positive correlation between BMI and FBS reiterates the diabetogenic effect of adipose tissue and emphasizes the importance of the maintenance of normal BMI (such as physical exercising) to prevent the early onset of Type 2 diabetes.
1.1 Background
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of relative weight based on an individual’s mass and height [1]. It is defined as the weight in kilograms, divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2) [2].

This ratio is then compared to the BMI reference range to see whether the individual is underweight (≤18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25-29.9), or overweight (≥30) [3].

A raised BMI value is an established risk factor for ischemic heart disease, stroke, and carcinomas. [1]
Fasting blood glucose is a blood test used to measure the quantity of glucose in the blood after at least an 8 hour fast [4].

It is used for the diagnosis of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus [4].
Obesity (BMI≥30) has been found to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes [1].
A strong correlation has been established between a high BMI and the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus from a study of more than 7000 British men (mean follow-up of 12 years) [6].

These observations were expected as obesity is known to induce insulin resistance due to a decrease in insulin-sensitive receptors as the weight increases [6].

Insulin is known to facilitate the uptake of glucose through the specialized membrane of the insulin-sensitive cells which invariably results in an increase in blood glucose level due to delayed glucose uptake [7]
Also From biochemical metabolic analysis, it has been established that fatty acids which constitute the body fat contents, can be synthesized from simple carbohydrates such as glucose [5].

Thus, it is not unexpected for an increase in blood glucose to induce an increase in BMI; as an increase in blood glucose level have been associated with an increase in lipid biosynthesis (lipogenesis) and hence, an increase in weight [5].

Since BMI is proportional to weight from its standard formula it is therefore expected that factors such as blood glucose which influences weight will ultimately affect BMI.

It is, therefore, expected that BMI should correlate with blood glucose levels but this is not however always the case because a Scottish study [8] has shown no significant statistical correlation between the random blood sugar level and Body Mass Index (BMI).
This study was therefore undertaken to determine the correlation between BMI and Fasting blood glucose in some healthy adults at the Laquintinie hospital Douala and also to check whether or not BMI increases with age.
1.2 Rationale
Many studies have been done in Europe, Asia, and even in many parts of Africa in other to determine the correlation between BMI and fasting blood sugar levels.
A study carried out amongst 400 participants in Sri Chamaragendra hospital in Hassan state on the correlation between BMI and FBS showed that there was a positive correlation between FBS and BMI in that study population[1]
Also, studies carried out in Nigeria suggest positive correlations between BMI and FBS [9]
Of all studies carried out in different places in Africa, very little or no study has been published in Cameroon and as such it is important to situate whether or not there is a relationship between BMI and FBS among healthy Cameroonian adults so that predisposed individuals to either obesity or diabetes would be educated on control measures to take and also encouraged to monitor their lifestyles.
The purpose of this study is the find out whether or not there is a correlation between BMI and FBS amongst healthy individuals at the Laquintinie hospital Douala.

The outcome of this study can influence policymaking on the management of obesity and diabetes which are rising epidemics in Cameroon.
1.3 Objectives
1.3.1 Main objective:
The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between BMI and FBS in adults attending the Laquintinine hospital Douala
1.3.2 Specific objectives:
To determine the effects of socioeconomic status on BMI and FBS
To evaluate the impacts of age and gender on BMI and FBS levels
To evaluate the correlation between BMI and FBS in adults


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