Research Key

AN ASSESSMENT OF PEOPLE’S PERCEPTION ON THE AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS ON HIV/AIDS IN NIGERIA

Project Details

Department
JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION
Project ID
JMC059
Price
5000XAF
International: $20
No of pages
42
Instruments/method
QUANTITATIVE
Reference
YES
Analytical tool
DESCRIPTIVE
Format
 MS Word & PDF
Chapters
1-5

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ABSTRACT
In this study an attempt was made to examine whether communication have effect on people’s behavioural change especially on the perception on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.
Question were administered among randomly sampled respondents from the study population.

The data obtain was analyzed using table some findings was formulated to direct the study were accepted.
Thus, there is significant of mass media communication do people perception on HIV/AIDS and increasing their knowledge about HIV/AIDS, raising awareness of personal risk factor and also teaches vulnerable individuals the skill need to reduce risky behaviours.

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
ANALYSIS OF AUDIENCE DEMOGRAPHICS
Table 1: Sex of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Male 100 52
Female 92 48
Total 192 100
Table 1 shows that 100 respondents (52%) are male while 92 respondents (48%) are female majority of he respondents are male.
Table 2
Age of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
18 – 20 26 14
20 – 25 122 64
25 and above 44 22
Total 192 100
From table 2 respondent representing 14% are between the ages of 18 – 20 years, 122 respondents representing 64% are between the ages of 20 – 25 years. The respondents representing 22% are between the ages of 25 and above. Majority of the respondents (64%) are between the ages of 20 – 2years.
Table 3
Marital status of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Married 18 9
Single 174 91
Divorced – –
Total 192 100
Table 3 shows that 173 respondents representing 91% are single while 18 respondents representing 9% are married. There is no divorced, single are the major respondents.
Table 4
Employment of the respondent
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Students 130 68
Civil servant 122 64
25 and above 44 22
Total 192 100
From table 4, 130 respondents representing 68% are students. 20 respondents are civil servant while 42 respondents representing 22% are self employed majority of the respondents are students.
The research distributed 200 questionnaire containing question on communication and behavioural change. A study of people’s perfection on the awareness campaign on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.
Out of 200 questionnaire distributed 192 were returned. In this chapter sample percentage and table are used for analysis and interpretation of data collected.
RESEARCH QUESTION 1
Do you know about HIV/AIDS?
Age of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Yes 144 94
No 48 6
Total 192 100
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2013
The above table indicates that 144 respondents (94%) are aware of the disease, while 48 respondents (6%) are not aware of the diseases. This indicates that majority of the respondents are aware of the disease.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2
Have you checked your status on HIV/AIDS?
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Yes 64 33
No 128 67
Total 192 100
Table 2 shows that 64 respondents (33%) have checked their status on HIV/AIDS. 128 respondents (67%) have not checked their status on HIV/AIDS. The total number of respondents that have checked their status on HIV/AIDS is lower than those that has not. This indicates that majority of the respondent do not know their status non HIV/AIDS.

RESEARCH QUESTION 3
When last did you check your status?
Age of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
1 – 6 months – –
6month -1 years 42 22
1year – 2 years 22 11
Not at all 128 67
Total 192 100
Source: Researcher’s field survey, 2013
Table 3 shows that 42 respondents (22%) last checked their status 6 months – 1 year ago, 22 respondents (11%) checked their status 1 – 2 years ago while 128 respondents (67%) has never checked their status on HIV/AIDS.
This table indicates that the respondents that has not checked their status in higher than those that has checked. It shows that people are scarce of knowing their status on HIV/AIDS.
RESEARCH QUESTION 4:
Do you use any media?
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Yes 192 100
No – –
Total 192 100
Source: Researcher’s field survey, 2013
Table 4 indicates that 192 respondents (100%) of the total respondents makes use of media. This indicates that majority of the respondents uses media.

RESEARCH QUESTION 5:
Which of the media do you use most?
Age of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Point 28 14
Broadcast 31 16
Social 57 30
Internet 76 40
Total 192 100
Source: Researcher’s Field Survey, 2013
Table 5 shows that 28 respondents (14%) uses print media, 31 respondents (16%) uses broadcast media. 57n respondents (30%) uses social media, while 76 respondents (40%0 uses internet. This indicates that internet is mostly used when it comes to different kinds of media.
RESEARCHERS’ QUESTION 6
Have you even seen/watched/listened to any campaign on HIV/AIDS on the media?
Age of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Yes 180 94
No 12 6
Total 192 100
This table above indicates that 180 respondents (94%) had sees watched/listened to HIV/AIDS campaign on the media, while 12 respondents (6%) has never see/ watch/ listen to any campaign on HIV/AIDS on the media. The above table indicates that majority of the respondents campaign on the different types of media used by them.

RESEARCH QUESTION 7
Through which medium do you see this most frequently?
Age of the Respondents
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Print 28 14
Broadcast 31 16
Social 57 30
Internet 76 40
Total 192 100
Table 7 shows that 28 respondents (14%) have seen HIV/AIDS campaigns on print media, 31 respondents (16%) represents respondents that have listened and watched HIV/AIDS campaign most frequently on broadcast media. 57 respondents (30%) have seen HIV/AIDS awareness campaign most frequently on social media.

While 76 respondents (40%) of the total respondents had seen HIV/AIDS campaign most frequently on the internet.

This indicates that internet is the media mostly use by the majority of the respondents.
RESEARCH QUESTION 8
How frequently are the campaigns on HIV/AIDS on Media?
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Regularly 48 25
Not regularly 90 47
I don’t know 54 28
Total 192 100
Sources: Researcher’s field survey, 2013
Table 8 shows that 48 respondents (25%) believes that HIV/AIDS campaigns on media are regular 90 respondents (47%) shows respondents that believes that HIV/AID campaigns on the media are not regular while 54 respondents (28%) cannot say whether the campaigns on HIV/AIDs is regular or not regular.

This table indicates that respondent do not see HIV/AIDs campaigns on the media.
RESEARCH QUESTION 9:
Mass media campaigns has crated enough awareness on HIV/AIDS?
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Strongly agree 86 45
Agree 40 21
Disagree 36 19
Strongly disagree 30 15
Total 192 100
Sources: Researchers’ field survey, 2013
Table 9 shows that 86 respondents (45%) strongly agreed that mass media has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS while 40 respondents (21%) agreed that mass media campaign has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS.

36 respondents (19%) disagreed and 30 respondents (15%) strongly disagreed that mass media has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS.

This indicates that the mass media campaign has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS.
QUESTION 10
What effect does HIV/AIDS Campaign had on you?
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Positive 96 50
Negative 50 26
I don’t know 46 24
Total 192 100
Sources: Researchers’ Field Survey, 2013
Table 10 shows that 96 respondents (50%) believes that HIV/AIDS campaigns had positive effects on them, while 50 respondents (26%) believes that HIV/AIDS had negative effects, 46 respondents (24%) can not say whether HIV/AIDS campaigns had effect on them.
RESEARCH QUESTION 11
Mass media campaigns are effective in sensitizing the people on the scourge of HIV/AIDS.
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Very effective 174 91
Effective – –
Not sure 18 9
Not effective – –
Not very effective – –
Total 192 100
Sources: Researchers field survey, 2013
Table 11 show that 174 respondents (91%) strongly believe that mass media campaigns on HIV/AIDS are very effective in sensitizing the people on the people on the scourge 18 respondents (9%) cannot come to the conclusion whether or not the mass media campaigns are effective in sensitizing the people on the scourge of HIV/AIDS.
RESEARCH QUESTION 12
HIV/AIDS has disconnected some people from their family.
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Strongly agree 124 65
Agree – –
Disagree 68 35
Strongly Disagree – –
Total 192 100
Sources: Researchers Field Survey, 2013
Table 12 shows that 124 respondents (65%) strongly agreed that HIV/AIDS disease have disconnected the sufferer from their family while 68 respondents (35%) believes that being a HIV/AIDS sufferer or carrier cannot disconnect them from the family. This data collected indicates that living with HIV/AIDS is not a barrier.
RESEARCH QUESTION 13
Most of the campaigns on HIV/AIDS usually use emotional appeal.
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Yes 182 95
No 10 5
Total 192 100
Sources: Research field survey, 2013
Table 13 shows that most of the respondents believe HIV/AIDS campaigns usually use emotional appeal. 182 respondents 95% believes that HIV/AIDS campaigns uses emotional appeal while 10 respondent do not believes that HIV/AIDS campaigns uses emotional appeal.
RESEARCH QUESTION 14
Do you think that the mass media campaigns have reduce the spread and risk of HIV/AIDS?
VARIABLE RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
Yes 182 95
No 10 5
Total 192 100
Sources: Researchers field survey, 2013
Table 14 shows that respondents (95%) believes that the mass media campaign has reduced the spread and risk of HIV/AIDS.

The believe that through mass media people knew the different preventive measures. 10 respondents (5%) disagreed that the mass media has helped in the reduction of HIV/AIDS spread and risk.

Research Question 1:
How frequent are the campaigns on HIV/AIDS in the media?
Items 6, 8 and 9 answered this question
Item 6
Have you ever seen/watched/listened to any campaign on HIV/AIDS on the media?
Item 6 shows that 180 respondents (94%) had seen/watched/listened to HIV/AIDS campaign on the media.

While 12 respondents have never seen/watch/listened to any campaign on the media.

Item 8
How frequent are the campaign on HIV/AIDS on media?
Item 8 shows that 48 respondents representing 25% believes that HIV/AIDS campaigns on media are regular 90 respondents representing 40.9% shows responds that believe HIV/AIDS campaigns on media are not regular.

While 54 of the respondents representing 28.1% shows the response of respondent that cannot say if campaign on HIV/AIDS is regular or not.
Item 9
Mass media campaign has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS?
Item 9 shows that 86 respondents representing 44.8% strongly agree that mass media has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS while 40 respondent representing 20% agree that mass media campaign has created enough awareness on HIV/AIDS.
RESEARCH QUESTION 2
To what extent are the people informed on the scourge?
Items 1, 2 and 3 answer the question on the extent people get informed on the scourge.
Item 1
Do you know about HIV/AIDS?
From the item above, 144 respondents are aware of the diseases representing 94%, while 48 respondents are not aware of diseases representing 6%. The shows that majority of the respondents are aware of disease.
Item 2
Have you checked your status on HIV/AIDS?
Item 2 shows that 64 respondents representing 33.3% has
Item 3
When last did you check your status?
Item 3 shows that 42 respondents representing 21.8% last checked their status 6 – 1 year ago, 22 respondents checked their status 1 – 2years ago while 128 respondents have the highest percentage while is 66.7% has never checked their status on HIV/AIDS.
RESEARCH QUESTION 3
What are the various mass media employed to disseminating information on the scourge?
Items 4, 5 and 7 answered the question to the above hypothesis.
Item 4
Do you use any media?
Item 4 shows that 192 respondent representing 100% of the total respondent make use of media.
Item 5
Which of the media do you use most?
Item 5 shows that 28 respondents representing 14.6% use print media, mostly 31 respondents representing 16.1% used broadcast media. While 57 respondents representing 29.7% uses social media internet according to the data collected is mostly used, it has 76 respondents representing 39.6%.
Item 7
Through which media do you see this most frequently.
Item 7 shows that 28 respondents representing 14.6% have seen HIV/AIDS campaign on print media frequently. 31 respondent representing 16.1% shows respondents that have listened and watched HIV/AIDS campaign on broadcast media frequently 57 respondents representing 29.7% have seen HIV/AIDS campaign frequently on social media. While 76 respondents representing 39.6% of the total percentage have seen HIV/AIDS campaign on internet frequently.
RESEARCH QUESTION 4
What impact do the campaigns have on the audience
Items 10, 14 and 12 provides answer to this hypothesis question.
ITEM 10
What effect does HIV/AIDS campaign had on you?
Item 10 shows that 96 respondents representing 50% have positive effect of HIV/AIDS campaign while 50 respondents representing 26% had negative effects on HIV/AIDS campaign while 46 respondent representing 24% don’t know the effective either positive or negative.
ITEM 12
HIV/AIDS have disconnected some people from their family.
Item 12 shows that 124 respondents representing 64.6% strongly agreed that HIV/AIDS have disconnected HIV/AIDS carriers from their families while 68 respondents representing 35.4% disagree that HIV/AIDS has disconnected the carriers from their families. They believe that living with an HIV/AIDS carriers is not a barrier.
ITEM 14
Do you think that the mass media campaigns have reduce the spread and risk of HIV/AIDS?
Item 14 shows that respondents 182 representing 94.8% believes that the mass media campaign has reduced the spread and risk of HIV/AIDS. They believe that through mass media people know the preventive measure of HIV/AIDS. The mass media helps in condom campaign and preventive measure 10 respondents representing 5.2% disagreed that the mass media has helped in reduction of HIV/AIDS spread and risk.
RESEARCH QUESTION 5
How effective are the mass media campaign to reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS items 11 and 13.
ITEM 11
Mass media campaigns are effective in sensitizing the people on the scourge of HIV/AIDS.
Item 11 shows that 174 respondents representing 90.6% strongly believes that mass media campaigns on HIV and AIDS are very effective is sensitizing the people on the scourge. While 18 respondents representing 9.4% cannot come to the conclusion whether or not mass media campaign are effective in sensitizing the people on the scourge of HIV/AIDS.
ITEM 13
Most of the campaigns on HIV/AIDS usually use emotional appeal.
Item 13 show that most of the respondents believe that HIV/AIDS campaigns usually use emotional appeal.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY
The study shows that communication has tremendously influence masses behavioural change towards their perceptions of the HIV/AIDS existing in Nigeria.
In the first chapter of this study communication was defined by different scholars, it also revealed the level of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria as at 2005.

HIV/AIDS according to this chapter is a disease that spread very easily it is said to be imported disease in Nigeria.
The second chapter shows forms of communication like interpersonal, interpersonal oral and mass communication.

This chapter revealed different theories sued in campaigning against HIV/AIDS.

Theory like the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), Agenda setting theory and information – motivation – Behavioural Skill Model (IMB). It also shows the research study review.
Chapter three of this project focuses on the methodology adopted in this research.

Questionnaire is the only available survey method that was used.

200 questionnaires were administered among randomly sampled respondents from the study population.
Chapter four is based on data analysis and interpretation where various responses were interpreted and analyzed.

According to the data collected it was revealed that communication helps in behavioural change and that mass media communication and campaigns on HIV/AIDS were very effective.

5.2 CONCLUSION

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of communication and behavioural change in the awareness campaign against HIV/AIDS using the people of Nigeria as a case study.
So far findings have revealed how effective the mass media has been in their communication awareness campaigns against HIV/AIDS.

The result from various respondents covered in this study supported the view that communication have succeeded in creating enough awareness and impacts on the masses especially in their behavioural change on HIV/AIDS.
The study also reveals that print, broadcast, internet and the social media were also respectively outlined as most vibrant vocal and sophisticated media of communicating and receiving HIV/AIDS message in the country.
Responding to the particular media through which they recover better and more information majority of the respondents revealed that they receives HIV/AIDS messages from internet and social networks.
The basic functions of communication which includes informing, educating and entertaining are performed through mass media communication to the target audience which is indispensable.

The absolute necessity of communication can be driven to the heart of some who imagine what would happen if all of a sudden communication seized to function or exist. The result is better left to the imagination than reality because without communication and the mass media.

5.3 RECOMMENDATION

Having considered all the findings during this research project, it has been made evident that mass media communication has been doing up to the expectation to campaigning against HIV/AIDS and also changing people’s behavior concerning HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.
These recommendation are not presented as final objectives to the immediate and impending problems which study tends to solve either presently or in the future.
Both government at all levels and non government agencies should use the mass media in increasing the level of awareness of the epidemic among the general public and also empower communities to design initiative community specific action plans in other to inform the people at the grass root.

Government should ensure that law and policies encourage the irrigation of the epidemic.
Moreso, government should establish more screening centres in all hospitals in the country for people to determine their HIV/AIDS status.

Print, broadcast and other media should create time and space for more awareness messages and communication on HIV/AIDS.
Finally in the course of this research work, respondents gave their suggestions that more seminars and lectures in needed in fighting against the epidemic.

They also suggested that education on regular basis should be given to primary and secondary school students on HIV/AIDS and it prevention, sexual behaviours, restrictive their sexual, there would be chaos and misinformation in the society.

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