ASSESSING BACTERIA CAUSES OF DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN 0-5 YEARS ATTENDING BUEA REGIONAL HOSPITAL
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Diarrhea disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Diarrhea disease had remained a significant public health challenge in the developing countries including Cameroon. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different bacteria that cause diarrhea among children age 0-5 years attending Buea Regional Hospital. A total of 30 diarrhea stool samples were obtained from both male and female children using wide mouthed screw cap containers. The stool samples were cultured on three different culture media ( SSA, MacConkey agar, and Mannitol salt agar) to isolate the bacteria. From the stool culture, 5 bacteria spp were isolated from the stool samples with some having more than one bacteria spp. Some children had one bacteria spp (7%), some had two bacteria spp (27%), others had three bacteria spp (63%), while one child had four bacteria spp (3%). From the bacteria isolated, E. coli had the highest prevalence of 90.0%, Salmonella (76.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (53.3%), Shigella spp (33.3%) and Klebsiella spp (16.7%). The gender distribution showed that the prevalence was higher in females patients (56.7%) and (43.3%) male. The study had high bacteria spp from participants of age group 0-2 with prevalence of (56.7%) while the lowest was observed in the age group 3-5 years with prevalence (43.3%). Use of flushing toilets (53.3%) or use of tap water (36.7%), contact with pets (36.7%) and those who eat outside (66.7%) were risk factors of bacteria diarrhea infection. These findings highlight the need of reinforcement of hygiene promotion especially among those who prepare food and municipal water supply and intensification of environmental interventions.