The knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation amongst young adults in the Molyko community
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Voluntary blood donation refers to unpaid, non-remunerated blood donation. An altruistic donor who gives blood freely and willingly without receiving money or any other form of payment. In 1818, James Blundell did the first human to human blood transfusion to a patient who had internal bleeding. The blood donor day is the 14th of June. This chapter would comprise of Background of the study, Problem Statement, Study Justification, Research objectives, Research questions, Significance of the study, scope of study and Operational definition of terms.
1.1 Background of the study
Blood donation is a gift of life that improves health and reduces premature mortality but many patients in need of blood transfusion do not have timely access to safe blood. An adequate and sustainable supply of safe blood can be assured by non-remunerated voluntary and unpaid blood donors as the rate of transfusion transmissible infection is lowest among them. However, in developing countries, there is a great challenge of availing safe and adequate blood. (WHO 2017) Globally, around 112.5 million units of donated blood are collected every year. Nearly half of these are collected in high-income countries and the average blood donation rate is more than 9 times greater in high-income countries than in low income countries. Particularly, Sub-Saharan Africa faces great challenges not only in the shortage of blood but also in the safety of blood. (WHO, Blood safety and availability 2017). The World Health Organization (WHO) urged all countries to obtain their blood supplies from voluntary, non-remunerated donors by the year 2020. However, 40 countries in Africa have donation rates of less than the WHO threshold level of 1% which is required to meet the most basic blood requirements. Many countries in Sub Saharan Africa, still unable to meet the minimum need for blood transfusions from all sources combined. (WHO $International Federation of Red Cross 2010). According to a report from the Ethiopian Ministry of Health, Ethiopia collected 223,000 units of blood in 2019/20, meeting only 22% of its need as per the standard of the World Health Organization. Studies conducted in different parts of Ethiopia have reported lifetime blood donation rates ranging from 18.4% to 26.4% among the general public and relatively higher rate among students and healthcare professionals ranging from 23.6% to 32.6% although the majority of the studies showed high levels of knowledge and favorable attitudes.(Mulatu K $Melkum M 2015). Studies from the Middle East and South Asia have reported much higher lifetime blood donation levels ranging from 43.4% to 61.2% and very high knowledge and attitude levels.(Maenia Sk $ Waleed U 2015). Lack of information and understanding about the need and process of blood donation, inadequate knowledge regarding the benefit of blood donation, misconceptions and perceived negative health effects caused by donation, and negative attitudes are the most frequently revealed reasons that discourage individuals from donating blood.17,18 Therefore, improving the level of knowledge and attitude towards blood donation in the community is essential to ensure safe and adequate blood supply.(Jamberu YA $ Lonnie E 2012) Limited studies have described the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation in developing countries and Ethiopia, even those few studies were conducted among students and healthcare professionals using only quantitative methods.11,(Elias E $Ahmed Z 2014). No study is available in our setting and this study tried to fill the knowledge gap by conducting the survey in a community setting and also supplementing the finding with some open-ended questions so as to understand community perception about blood donation.
1.2 Problem Statement
Over million blood units are collected from donors every year; nevertheless, many more millions still need to be collected to meet the global demand, ensure sufficient and timely provision of blood [Damesyn MA et al (2003)]. Safe blood donation helps reduce mortality. A study conducted by Elsinore Elias et al 2016 showed a low proportion of blood donation among university students in Tanzania in spite of the lifesaving power of blood donation. In many other under developed countries, the knowledge, practice and attitude of adult toward blood donation has been low as some people have even had to die because those surrounding them where afraid of donating blood or even compelled by their religion not to give blood.
1.3 Significance of the study
The findings of this study will be used as a baseline to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention by those in charge which will reduce misconceptions and misunderstanding, improve knowledge, and enable people to donate blood voluntarily and regularly.
1.4 Research Questions
1- What is the knowledge of young adults in the Molyko community towards blood donation?
2- What is the attitude of young adults in the Molyko community on blood donation?
3- What is the practice of young adults in the Molyko community on blood donation?
1.5 Research Objectives
1.5.1 General Objective
To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation amongst young adults in the Molyko community.
1.5.2 Specific objectives
1- To evaluate the knowledge of young adults in the Molyko community on voluntary blood donation.
2- To investigate the attitude of young Molyko adults on Voluntary Blood donation
3- To determine the practice of young Molyko adults towards voluntary blood donation.