Research Key


Project Details

Project ID
International: $20
No of pages
Analytical tool
Descriptive statistics
 MS Word & PDF

The custom academic work that we provide is a powerful tool that will facilitate and boost your coursework, grades and examination results. Professionalism is at the core of our dealings with clients

Please read our terms of Use before purchasing the project

For more project materials and info!

Call us here
(+237) 654770619
(+237) 654770619



Waste management as a social problem has neither spared the developed nor developing nations as statistics have proven that some developed nations are seriously grappling with this bane. The main objective of this study is to examine the challenges and prospects of solid waste management in the Buea Municipality.

Specifically, the study seeks to identify the types and quantity of waste generated most in Buea Municipality, to assess the municipal waste management practices in Buea Municipality and to identify the major challenges associated with the waste within the Buea Municipality.

The study was a quantitative in nature and employed descriptive survey design to sample 60 households within the municipality through convenient and simple random sampling techniques by means of a structured-questionnaire. Collected data was analysed using SPSS (21.0) where descriptive statistics was used to analysed variables.

Finings revealed that the dominate form of waste generated by the inhabitant of Buea is plastics waste in nature and include polythene bags and other solid related waste.

On average, households generate between 0-1kg/day of waste. The study revealed that burning is the most used method of waste disposal but the people are of the view that it is not the best of approach to use as hence advocated for house to house collection and disposal of waste at a dump site.

The major challenges people faced in regard to waste management in the municipality includes; poor sanitation and sickness.

Finally, the study suggested that provision of dustbins and allocation of collection points are the most efficient ways of improving the waste management challenge and practices as it will put in place mechanism to check individual behaviour and attitudes.



Background of the Study

Currently, world cities generate about 1.3 billion tons of solid waste per year. This volume is expected to increase to 2.2 billion tones by 2025.

Waste generation rates will more than double over the next twenty years in lower-income countries. Globally, solid waste management costs will increase from today’s annual $205.4 billion to about $375.5 billion in 2025.

Cost increases will be most severe in low-income countries and lower-middle-income countries(Bhada-Tata, 2012).

Waste generation dates back to man’s origin and the early way of life which principally was foraging through the nomadic experience and pattern of life.

The abandonment of the nomadic way of life led to the creation of permanent communities. With mutations and evolutions that have accompanied humanity, waste that was earlier given low priority in most communities increasingly gained attention for proper management.

Recently, and through communal and municipal actions, conferences and training workshops, as well as government action waste management, has become a conjecture for responsible public health and safety (Pichtel, 2005).

The fundamental environmental issue in industrial and developing countries throughout the world over waste is the identification and management of waste streams (Twardowska, 2004).

As urbanization continues to take place, the management of solid waste becomes a major challenge posing major public health and environmental problems for many countries.

As a result, development must be sustainable, in the sense of reducing the ecological footprint while simultaneously improving the quality of life – for ours and future generations – within the capacity limits of the globe (Lundström, 2007)

The characteristics and quantity of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSW) arising from domestic, commercial, and industrial activities are not only the result of a growing population, rising standards of living and technological development, but also due to the abundance and type of the natural resources from the country or community (Dongqing et. al, 2010).

The approach for SWM also varies and should be compatible with the nature of a given society.

For instance, many studies on MSW management structures and systems in developing countries have revealed that the quantity of waste and composition vary according to the characteristics of the area and the management must be adapted to limitations common to such environment.

These limitations are attributed to immaturity in terms of expertise in developing appropriate models and effective legal framework for MSW management.

As a result, the citizens and the community depend on the municipal authorities for solid waste collection and disposal (Puentes, 2004).

According to Pearce, (1994) developing countries face several major problems as a result of solid waste management and has been classified thus:

– Health hazards from uncollected waste

– Health hazards from collected but poorly disposed of the waste

– Economic burden of waste disposal on towns and cities

According to Flintoff, (1984), the total population of developing countries accounts for more than 70 % of the world’s population.

Waste management in these countries is of grave concern from two points of view: Firstly, the process of urbanization and population concentration that is inextricably linked to waste management issues is progressing at a pace that is much faster than was ever experienced by today’s industrialized countries.

The issue of waste management in developing countries, therefore, has emerged as a critical and impending disaster. Secondly, these countries often have difficulty in streamlining the institutional systems, administrative bodies, management capabilities and human resources that are needed to take the lead in solving solid waste problems.

It is thus difficult for them to respond effectively to the emerging challenges of solid waste management.

Rapid urban development facing developing countries including Cameroon has come with serious environmental challenges concerning solid waste management. Solid waste arising from domestic, social and industrial activities is increasing in quantity and variety as a result of a growing population, rising standards of living in most African countries and the development of technology (Dickerson, 1999).

In Cameroon, like other African countries, waste management is poorly practised.

The study of Manga et al, (2007) indicated that solid waste management services are rudimentary. The practise is primarily concerned with the collection and dumping of waste without proper management methods.

This form of management is due to factors such as inadequate financial resources, low levels of law enforcement as well as poor governance and lack of human resource. Moreover, current regulations do not adequately address waste handling or disposal.

Inefficient implementation of waste management policies and documentation is affected by duplication of functions and responsibilities between several government agencies and the local councils (Manga et al, 2007).

Furthermore, the infancy of literature on local cases makes it inadequate for the proper functioning of waste management.

In this regard, waste management in Buea is inefficient in hazard minimization because sustained efforts have not been developed in the domain of waste education, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal.

The sustainable management of solid waste systems is necessary to minimize environmental and public health risks worldwide (Manga et al, 2007).

The balance between the specific components of this system in delivering sustainable waste management is already well understood and established in most developed countries, unlike in developing countries like Cameroon.

Statement of the Problem

Public planning in the area of solid waste management is an extremely complex subject especially when dealing with planning collection routes, sitting processing facilities, as well as choosing locations for landfills and planning what will become of the landfill once they are full.

Such challenges and the impact of waste disposal on the environment have led to the search for sustainable solutions in waste management in both developed and developing countries.

Open dumping of waste presents a real threat to the environment and human health and is commonplace in developing countries like Cameroon. Constrained by budget pressures, towns and cities in the southern hemisphere are struggling to deal with the proliferation of municipal solid waste.

Global production has practically doubled over the past ten years and is expected to reach 2.5 billion tons per year in 2025 as a result of the combined effect of urban development and changes in consumption patterns.

The disposal and burning of domestic waste can cause profound strain on the environment, contamination of groundwater resources, organic and inorganic pollution of nearby surface water and carbon dioxide released from landfills as the main disposal site.

Economic and population growth, urbanization and industrialization as well as commercialization are responsible for the challenges that national and the local government council’s face in their efforts to organize sustainable waste management.

However, prospects for the private sector are still largely dependent on the establishment of a strict, secure regulatory framework, good public governance and better access to finance.

They are also constrained by the local authorities’ limited financial resources. To some extent, recycling and recovery activities are not affected by budgetary limitations.

To this effect, efforts have been made to enhance solid waste management from urban agglomerations like HYSACAM in Buea, yet many problems persist and this is the focus of this study.

Such problems include the measure of collection/week, the distance and zonal mapping of the collection routes as well as an inappropriate dumpsite.

Furthermore, there is the problem of a very ineffective process of measuring the volume and weight of each truckload of collected waste. Although these challenges could come from multiple sources such as the lack of the political will from the government to allow local councils to autonomously handle the waste management, local councils themselves need to develop effective and sustainable system and implement sound practices and policies for sustainable waste management.

Other challenges faced by HYSACAM include limited equipment, people’s negative attitude, and poor access to neighbourhoods.

Sometimes they dump their waste into the draining system without knowing the health implications of it. It is against this background that this study was conducted.

In line with the above challenges faced by both council and HYSACAM in managing waste in the Municipality, the study, therefore, seeks to examine the challenges and prospects of solid waste management in Buea Municipality.

Research Question

Main Research Question

What are the challenges and prospects of solid waste management in Buea Municipality?

Specific Research Questions

  1. What type of solid wastes is generated in the Buea municipality?
  2. How is municipal solid waste managed in Buea Municipality?
  3. What are the possible challenges associated with municipal solid waste management within the Buea Municipality?

The objective of the Study

Main Objective

The main objective of this study is to examine the challenges and prospects of solid waste management in the Buea Municipality.

Specific Objectives of the Study

  1. To identify the typesof waste generated most in Buea Municipality
  2. To assess the municipal waste management practices in Buea Municipality
  3. To identify the major challenges associated with the waste within the Buea Municipality
Translate »
Scroll to Top