CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND Its EFFECTS ON TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE BUEA SUB DIVISION SOUTH WEST REGION
|CURRICULUM STUDIES AND TEACHING|
No of pages
|MS Word & PDF|
The custom academic work that we provide is a powerful tool that will facilitate and boost your coursework, grades and examination results. Professionalism is at the core of our dealings with clients
For more project materials and info!
Call us here
The main focus of this study was to examine the effect of classroom management on the teaching-learning process in English language in secondary schools in the Buea Municipality. Specifically, the study sought to find out how classroom rules and regulations affect the teaching and learning process, to what extent does punishment affect the teaching-learning process and how does positive reinforcement affect the teaching-learning process. Three schools and a total of 120 respondents were used for the study. Data were collected with the use of questionnaires administered to students. From findings, respondents pointed out that classroom rules and regulations, as well as positive reinforcement all have a positive effect on the teaching-learning process, thus if they are appropriately used, would help to handle student disruptive behavior and bring out desirable behavior as well as providing a classroom climate that foster learning. However, the study revealed that punishment negatively affects the teaching-learning porticoes of English Language. It was also found out that punishment is not very effective as a classroom management strategy due to its numerous negative effects especially corporal punishment. It was recommended that educational authorities should ensure that teachers especially student teachers should have a good mastery of classroom management strategies by making it of paramount importance during training.
Classroom management can be defined as the actions teachers take to establish and sustain an environment that fosters students academic achievement as well as their social , emotional , and moral growth . It is a term teachers use to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lesson runs smoothly without disruptive behavior from learner’s /students.
The goal of classroom management is not order for order sake but it’s order for the sake of learning. Those responsible for classroom management are ultimately teachers. However, student play a very important role as well, students contribute to classroom management in the sense that they directly inform the structure and learning atmosphere as members of the classroom community and together with teachers, they create a culture of learning, accountability and inclusivity.
Classroom management is crucial in classrooms because it supports the proper execution of curriculum development, developing best teaching practices and putting them into action. The whole process of classroom management involves the actions and directions that are put in place by teachers to creat a successful learning environment in an effort to ensure all students or learner’s receive the best education. Classroom management involves a wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused , attentive on task and to be academically productive during class.
Background of The Study.
This background of the study will consist of the historical background, theoretical background and contextual background:
The concept of classroom management started in the early 1970s . Classroom management was first invented by Jacob kounin. Jacob kounin is an educational theorist who focused on teachers ability to affect students behavior through instructional management . Jacob kounin is a classroom behaviorist theorist ,he started a psychologist at Wayne State University in Detroit Michigan . He began his studies in 1970 by writing decipline and group management in classrooms . His best known fo two studies he did in 1970 that was based on classroom management . He wrote the book to discuss the effective and ineffective behaviors in classrooms .
Jocob Kounin began by first observing teachers in an everyday classroom setting to see how they handled misbehaving. He discovered by his foundings that no matter how the teachers handled the given situation, the outcome was always the same . His conclusion was basically to prevent misbehavior before it even happens . This brought on his idea of having main points to follow to have successful classroom management. The ripple effect of his theory came about while Kounin was teaching during mental hygiene class and a student of his was in the back reading a news paper ,the paper was completely open and covering the students face he asked the student to put the paper away and follow along . This brought on other students to follow the same directions . He then concluded that if you call out one student infront of the class,it will cause other students to get refocused.
John Dewey an American philosopher ,physchologist and educational reformer was born on October 20th ,1859 in Burlington , Vermont United States .He was one of the most prominent American scholars in the first half of the 20th century . John Dewey’s theory recommends an interdisciplinary curriculum or a curriculum that lays emphasis on connecting multiple subjects were by students can freely walk in and out of the classroom . In this way students pursue their own interests and build their own method for acquiring and applying specific knowledge.His ideas have been influential in education and social reforms .Dewey conciders two fundamental elements ; school and civil society to be a majore topic needing attention and reconstruction to encourage experimental intelligence and pularity .
He believed that teachers should should never pressure students to conform and that instead of going into a classroom with curtain or levels of expectations,teachers should accept students of all different cultures , religions and family backgrounds and within individual school regulations,teachers should respect students who are different or unusual attire . As a philosopher philosopher, social reformer and educator , Dewey changed the fundamental approach to teaching and learning. His ideas about education sprang from a philosophy of pragmatism and we’re central to progressive movement in schooling .Dewey argued that curriculum should be relevant to student’s lives . He saw learning by doing and development of practical life skills as a crucial tool to children’s education . As expected ,some critics assume that under Dewey’s system , students would fail acquire basic academic skills and knowledge.
Classroom management can make or break your teaching . This statement was made by Todd Whitaker . Todd Whitaker is an American educator ,writer , motivational speaker , educational consultant and professor and a leading presenter in the feild of education. He has published over 30 books on staff motivation,teachers leadership , technology, middle level practices , instructional improvement a d principal effectiveness including the national best seller of the book titled What great Teachers Do Differently . Todd Whitaker, Madeline Whitaker ,Good Whitaker and Katherine Whitaker came together to write a book on classroom management. They created a guide combining sound research with practical wisdom so educators could have a classroom management resource written by teachers for teachers . The book contains effective strategies for designing and improving your classroom management from group up . Each chapter covers a core aspect of classroom management and includes a foundational understanding of the concept .
According to the national comprehension center for teaching quality, a significant body of research also demonstrate that classroom organization and the ability to effectively manage students behavior ‘ significantly influence the persistence of new teachers in teaching careers within this frame work it is clear that instructional theory and classroom management strategies are among the most important aspects of teachers education . Classroom management theory is constantly evolving reasons being why there are key theories who stand out when it comes to mordern education . Through out the 20th century experts like B.F Skinner , William Glasser and Alfie John revolutionized the ways that teachers deliver education . The first theorist that will be discussed will be B.F skimmer .
B.F Skinner’s contribution to learning theory can’t be overstated. This work is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior . According to him, changes in behavior are as a result of individuals responses to events or stimuli that occur in their environment . He says when a stimuli response pattern is rewarded the individual is conditioned to respond similarly in the future. The key to B.F Skinner theory is ‘ reinforcement’ or anything that strengthens the desired response. This comes in the form of praises ,good grades and rewards or even a feeling of accomplishment . It should be noted that negative response /reinforcement occurs when a stimulus result in increase response when it is withdrawn. Skinner’s work in operant conditioning has being integrated into classrooms management and instructional development . Many behavior management system utilized today in classrooms were are influence by his theories. Hussung and Lynch (2016-2022).
William Glasser another theorist who contributed to classroom management theory coined the term ‘choice theory ‘ in (1998). His theory stars that all that all we do is behave . Glasser suggest that almost all behavior vis chosen and we are driven by genetici to satisfy five basic needs . This needs are survival ,love and belonging , power ,freedom and fun . In his theory the most important need is love and belonging because connectedness with others is required as a basis in satisfying all other needs . Therefore the classroom be a needs satisfying place, for students . Glasser’s theory had created impact in learning in a variety of ways . It had being utilized in schools across the globe and has changed the ways that teachers deliver instructions . The first aspect that he identify is teachers as managers who who need to work effectively if they want to successfully teach their students. The role of teachers as managers requires them to guide students in understanding that it will and will have positive influence on their lives . They ( teachers) can make this possible by developing a positive relationship with students and creating active relevant learning experiences that enable students and learner’s to demonstrate mastery a success. He adds that when it comes to lessons , teachers who practice choice theory work to make sure that students classroom activities are designed to satisfy the students needs . This should be done in other to allow learning to increase while diminishing disruption. Hussung and Lynch (2016-2022).
Alfie Kohns work critique many aspects of traditional education namely the use of competition or external factors as motivation . He maintain that societies based in extrinsic motivation always becomes over time . Alfie goes ahead to question the hierarchical structures at work in mainstream education . He argued that positive enforcement only encourages students to seek out more positive enforcement rather than learn . He believes that the classroom emphasizes curiosity and cooperation above all an that the students curiosity cooperation above all and the students curiosity should determine what is taught. He also argued that a strict curriculum and and home work are counterintuitive to student’s needs . When it comes to classroom management he believes that most teachers rely to heavily on extrinsic motivation rather than more intrinsic factors . He suggest teachers keep cooperation in mind because when curiosity is nutured , reward and punishment aren’t necessary.by Hussung and Lynch (2016-2022).
To implement his approach in classroom’s teachers can allow students to explore the topics that interest then most . Students should be able to think and explore ,write without worrying about how good they are . In general Kohn believe that there is too much emphasis on achievement rather than the learning process . He emphasizes that not all students learn at the same place an standard do not take into account . He believed in classrooms were the stude t is at the center of everything .
Contextually, Buea was the colonial capital of German Kameroun from 1901 -1919 ,the capital of the southern Cameroons from 1949 until 1901 and the capital of West Cameroon . in the mid-1920s the government appeared on the education scene with more assistance and policy formulation. The department of education established in 1926 worked hand-in-hand with the missions, and more schools were introduced. The first major change was the re-introduction of community schools as a response to the unforeseen increase requirement for secondary education. This demand came into being following the implementation of Universal Primary Education (UPE, 1995). The implementation of UPE created unparalleled social demand for basic education. The increase in the enrolment in primary schools resulted in the expansion of Secondary education through a strategy of constructing community secondary schools in each Sub Division in Cameroon. A circular was issued by the government in 1994 to initiate a ten year program for the expansion of secondary education. The program was not implemented until in 1996 when it started and was to be completed by 2005 with the construction of 79 secondary schools which were to be distributed in such a way that each region was to build three schools. Essentially, community primary schools are government schools in which both local communities and the central government have the responsibility to run the schools( UPE, 1995). The Government through the Ministry of Secondary Education and Vocational Training ,with the help of foreign donors, members of the community, development partners, contributions from local government, government through internal and external sources took the initiative to start building community schools all over the country in each Sub-Division as pointed earlier. To a large extent, secondary schools supported by government, community contributions, development partners and local government contributions have provided education to children from poor families, who are mostly found in rural remote areas, while government provided schools with financial and technical support such as paying teachers’ salaries. Secondary Education has stipulated, selection of students to be enrolled into secondary schools are made on the ‘basis of a pre-set First School standard cut-off point of 100 marks performance’ in the First School Leaving Certificate (FSLC). Students enrolled into Secondary schools from primary schools need to have a minimum of 100 scores in their First School Leaving Examination (FSLC).
It’s commonly known that most students turn to have a cold feeling in learning the English language due to one reason or the other and this makes it difficult for teachers to handle and manage such classrooms very well . The Buea Sub-Division will be the case study or area of
study and thus much concentration and emphasis will be layed on it .
Statement of The Problem:
Classroom management is the process of ensuring the classroom lessons rub smoothly withy disruptive behavior from learners . The aspect of classroom management is and has always being a very difficult problem of teaching most especially when it comes to the teaching of English language . In the early 1980s , the problem of classroom management has caused Mani people to live the teaching field . In 1981, the U.S National Educational Association reported 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into teaching if the had the chance to decide again . A major reason was negative students attitudes and decipline .
Classroom management is crucial in every classroom because it supports the proper execution of lessons or curriculum development . If a class is not properly managed or coordinated by the teacher , lessons can not and will not run smoothly . The aspect of classroom management is a problem that is faced by every teacher be I a biology teacher, economics teacher , a maths teacher and an English teacher . This problem of classroom management is a world wide problem that has being in existence for many years and is seeing as one of the most biggest challenge faced by teachers . As we know it’s not easy to put a class in order . The problem which is of oath most importance is ; the effect of classroom management on secondary school students academic achievement in English language in the buea sub division south west Rigion of Cameroon . The effects here will be both the positive and negative effect on students academic performance.
Objectives of The Study:
The general Objective of this study is to examine the effects of classroom management on students’ academic performance in English language in the Buea Sub-Division South west Region .
- To elicit the views of teachers about classroom rules and regulations on the teaching and learning process.
- To assess the effect of punishment to the teaching and learning process
- To evaluate the effects of positive reinforcement on the teaching and learning process
- How does classroom rules and regulations affect the teaching and learning process?
- To what extent does punishment affect the teaching and learning process?
- Does positive reinforcement affect the teaching and learning process?