Contributions of the Quarry activities in the improvement and development of the Logbajeck community in the Sanaga Maritime Sub-division of Littoral Cameroon
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Quarry activity is one of the major economic activities in world. It involves the extraction of huge stones from the geological rich rocky soil of a given area.
The aim of this research was to assess the contributions of quarry activities in Logbadjeck Community.
The work was structured into four chapters. In which in the first chapter encompasses: the background of the Study mainly around the context around Quarry activities at the global scale, Africa and Cameroon in the study Area.
The statement of the problem, the objectives of the study for instance the socio-economic contributions of quarry activities in this locality.
The second chapter emphasizes on the former researchers′ work elaborated on the quarry activities.
The third chapter represents the methodology used to carry out the result and the environment of the study.
The fourth chapter of the research emphasized on the analyses and findings of the study.
1.1 CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
Rock quarrying and stone crushing is a global phenomenon and has being one of the causes of concern everywhere in the world, including the developing countries (Lammeed and Ayodele, 2010).
Quarrying of natural stone including gravel, sand and crushed rock, represents the main source of construction materials used throughout the world.
At the global level, production of natural stone products witnessed a substantial increase by many countries and amounted to 30 percent in the last 10 years (World Bank Stone Report, 2002).
The removal of stone from its geological formation for human purposes is an ancient activity and it is the central to the evolution of human society.
Also pre-dating the use of iron. Quarried stone once processed (whether in trimming, splitting, sawing, drilling, shaping, crushing, chemical process burning, blasting) has being variously used:
- For the construction of upstanding buildings and roofing elements as well as other structures such as defensive and harbor walls.
- For the frication of tools such as axes, millstone and whetstone.
- For the creation of artistic sculptures.
- As fertilizers.
- As a component in cement and concretes.
It is as important to the history of civilization as the use of ceramics, as the use of organic materials such as timber, turf and clay, the use of metals.
In this context however, it is important to bear in mind that not all world cultures have made extensive use of stone.
For instance, in Japan, it is only with the Meiji restoration of 1868 that stone begin to replace traditional timber architecture on a significant scale.
It is under the dynasty of Tang dynasty (616-907CE) that stone (and brick) buildings began to predominate in China, though stone was used where it was easily available for/ in defensive structures, most notably in the Great Wall (Needham 1971, 38-91).
In West African traditional architecture on a significant scale, Mud / Adobe buildings are common; Central Africa make use of that and wood, other perishable materials.
In East Africa, the pattern is more varied, but the stone is commonly used in the Northern and Southern part of the continent.
Also it is the European expansion into other continents, from the 15th century onwards that gradually brought the use of quarried stone into parts of the world where it had previously been uncommon or unknown such as; North America, Siberia, West Africa and Oceania.
The global reach of the quarried stone over the last 500years has expanded dramatically and by the 19th century, it was promoted by the government-sponsored scientific testing of different types of rock for durability and water resistance.
Broadly speaking, however, and with the exceptions discussed below, until recently, the only stone exported over long distances were those intended for specialist purposes or as decorative elements such as Columns and Facades.
Technological development has led more recently to the new generation of “Super quarries” with examples in the United Kingdom (UK), India and China.
Exporting significant amount of stone over long distances. Conversely, there is pressure on from Geo-conservationists to re-open older and much smaller quarries to provide specialist stone rebuild historically significant structures.
Quarry activities is of great significance wherever it is practiced in the globe; politically, socially, economically.
Politically, countries having underground riches like stones, policies are being placed to govern, control or redistribute the resources for better administration of the area concern.
Where part of the revenue from such activity is being used for administrative purposes.
Also, on areas having such riches it will help to boast the areas or country’s Morals since it is a prestige of having such resource or riches, thus, acting as a powerful area in a country or a powerful country in the continent or in the world.
Economically, quarrying as an economic activity, helps to boast the Economy of some parts of the world concerned. Since the activity helps to increase the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of many areas where it is practiced.
According to Martin Creamer (4th July, 2012.), the global mining industries derived more than 45% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP), either direct bases or through the use of products that facilitate other industries, says the “ AngloGold Ashanti CEO mark Culifani”.
Addressed mining for the change conference, calculates that the mining products revenue contribute 11.5% to global GDP; mining service industries a further 21% to 23% and fertilizers for agriculture, fuel for transport and materials for construction then take mining’s combine direct and indirect contribution beyond 45%.
In Cameroon, mining and quarrying are the main economic activities, however, their contribution to the world’s GDP have decreased in the recent years accounting for 7.2% in 2011.
Also it is accompanied by other economic activities.
Socially, quarrying leads to the improvement of the standard of living of the stone workers, employment facilities, the development of infrastructures such as; roads, rails, buildings, schools, hospitals.
In some cases some quarry enterprises provide pipe borne water, schools, clinics for the community where experienced.
Quarry activity as any other form of economic practice, has some externalities like dust, noise, land degradation, respiratory diseases amongst others.
But the activity is continually carried out because of its contributions to the improvements and development of mostly the areas concerned in the world and consequently increasing the world′s GDP.
And we should also bear in mind that development is inevitable to destruction. Also, as there are many mouth to feed, Man live does all such activities in order to survive on earth as since resources are limited.
Today, thanks to technological innovations and advancement, Man live under adaptability in order to have a better stay on the planet earth.
In Logbajeck (our study area) found in the Sanaga Maritime Subdivision of the, Littoral Region of Cameroon. A wide range of extraction of construction materials with various method are underway.
The extracting Stone Quarrying Companies here include: FAREL, RAZEL and the ROYAL QUARRRY COMPANY (LTD).
These quarries play socio-economic improvements of the community of the study area in particular as well as the development of the Division (Sanaga Maritime Division), Region (Littoral Region), country (Cameroon) as a whole.
Although the quarries contributes a lot for the Logbajeck Area, but as all economists , their aim is to maximize profit and often have little regard on the environmental considerations.
Hence, different problems do occur and become a major concern to bring out better ways of carrying out the activity. For instance, save operations and environmental sustainability (Enatfenta, August 2007).
1.2 STAMENT OF PROBLEM
Stone quarrying, which is the removal of stone from its geological formation for human purposes such as; for construction amongst other infrastructural facilities.
Following the increasing demand for stone (concrete) for infrastructures and housing development, have made or pushed the quarrying investors to increase their activities in this study area, where massive of stones are available.
This increasing or intensity of these quarries in the study area might lead to some benefits for the local community in particular and the neighboring areas as well as the country in general.
Therefore, this study seeks to investigate on the contributions of the quarries to the development of the local community of Logbadjeck
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE
The study aims at assessing the improvement on the local community caused by the quarrying activities.
1.3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
The specific objectives aim at attempting to:
- Assessing the livelihood outcomes of the caused by the quarrying activities in the study area.
- Identify the problems faced in the quarries and possible solutions.
- Identify some problems caused by quarries to the local community.
- Examine the socio-economic outcomes as the results of the quarrying activities.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
As aforementioned, the research is aim at assessing the contribution of the quarries activity to the local (Logbajeck) community. It is therefore focused to answer the following questions;
- Is quarrying the main source of income to the local community of the study area?
- How far has the area changed as a result of the quarrying activities?
- Do the quarries mainly employ the indigenes of this area?
- What are some problems faced by the community as a result of the quarrying activities?
- What are the socio-economic provisions by the quarries to the local community?