CULTURAL TOURISM AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN MBONGE SUB-DIVISION
|Tourism and Hospitality Management|
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|MS Word & PDF|
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Cultural tourism is not a new concept. It can be traced far back in the second century A.D. The Romans were the first to begin an early form of cultural tourism by travelling to Greece, where they observed art, theatre, philosophers and high culture. Cultural tourism has become a global market and this creates an organic and interdependent system whereby supply and demand see significant changes both in time and space. The study seeks to investigate how cultural tourism can help in community development in the Mbonge Sub-Division. This study was guide was guide by two hypotheses. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources from interview guides, journals, articles, magazines, books, pulishes and unpublished books. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis approach, the descriptive and inferential statistical tools using statistical tools like frequency count and percentages while the Chi-Square Goodness of fit test was used in the testing hypotheses one and two of the study. Findings reveal that the most important cultural attractions Mbonge are annual festivals, traditional dances, beach, monuments, plantation, traditional marriages, canoe racing, the palace, the old CDC camp, hills , and coronation. Cultural tourism has increases transport network which makes movement of loads and people easy in Mbonge. Cultural tourism has attracts industrialists for the establishments of companies and industries for community development in Mbonge. The Anglophone crisis, insecurity, tribalism to strangers, bad roads, lack of finance, theft, prostitution as young girls engage into sex with strangers/visitors, language barrier, lack of accommodation facilities, inadequate publicity, lack of government assistance, inadequate information ,out touristic sites and poor management of the touristic sites. From the above problems the some recommendations were made
This study is structured in to different chapters. Chapter one comprises the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, research questions, research hypotheses, research objectives, significance of the study, and operational definitions of terms. Chapter two comprises the conceptual review, theoretical review, reviews of empirical literature and research gaps. Chapter three comprises the research methodology, introduction, research design, study area, study population and sampling techniques and sample size, instruments, data collection, data analyses and ethical consideration. Chapter four comprises the results and interpretation. Chapter five comprises the discussions, conclusions and recommendations.
Cultural tourism is not a new concept. It can be traced far back in the second century A.D. The Romans were the first to begin an early form of cultural tourism by travelling to Greece, where they observed art, theatre, philosophers and high culture. The Romans continued this tradition of travel sporadically, depending on wars, for over a thousand years, visiting locations around the Mediterranean. In 1200 A.D., the Roman Catholic Church encouraged everyone to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and other holy sites such as Canterbury, Rome and Santiago de Compostela. Between 1200 and 1300 A.D., all social classes made pilgrimages to the Holy Land to witness its beauty, experience an exotic culture, eat unfamiliar foods and purchase souvenirs. By the fifteenth Century, a new business was created, the all-inclusive tour from Venice to the Holy Land (https://www.sfasu.edu/heritagecenter/image/Chapter_3_HeritageTourism_.pdf accessed on the 22 November, 2022).
In the 16th Century, the Protestant Reformation quelled the popularity of cultural tourism to holy shrines and heritage tourism soon transformed from a holy pilgrimage to learning and sightseeing tour. The first stop of many travelers’ tour was either France or Italy. In France, the young men visited art collections in private homes and museums, they visited Notre Dame and other Cathedrals and socialized in the French court. The Grand Tour developed in the 1700s where tourists travelled to popular destination like France and Italy. Young men learned how to fence, dance, ride horses, dress fashionably, speak French, improved their manners took in the opera and theatre, visited the ruins and learned about local history, Renaissance art and architecture. Other Grand Tours included a trip to see and travel through the Alps. The Europeans began travelling to America to visit American natural heritage attractions such as the Catskill Mountains, Niagara Falls, Lake Champlain, mills and mines and in the late 19th Century, Europeans and Americans alike visited Civil War battlefields like Mount Auburn in Cambridge established in 1831 and Laurel Hill. This trend is more rapid in the 21st Century as the need of tourists is changing from mass form of tourism to cultural tourism (https://www.sfasu.edu/heritagecenter/image /Chapter_3_HeritageTourism_.pdf accessed on the 22 November, 2022).
Cultural tourism plays an important role in community development at all levels, from the global highlights of world culture to attractions that underpin local identities (Richards, 2001). According to Wolfensohn, (1999), cultural tourism plays a leading role in cultural policy development and stimulates economic growth so as to promote cultural identity and cultural diversity.
Cultural tourism plays an important role in community development in the sense that it increases the quality of life associated with heritage resources, and creates and maintain individual and community identity. Also, cultural tourism is vital in the education of children; and it provides pleasure/recreation opportunities for both the tourists and local population.
Forsyth, (1997), further states that cultural tourism plays a vital role in building community pride, enhancing the sense of identity of a community or region, promoting intercultural/international understanding. It encourages revival or maintenance of traditional crafts, enhances external support for minority groups and preservation of their culture, provides funding for site preservation and management, enhances local and external appreciation and support for cultural heritage.
Cultural tourism has been seen as one of the major growth areas in European tourism and is increasingly being seen as a major area of product development by tourism destinations in search of diversification (Richards, 2009). The ready availability of cultural resources makes cultural tourism an attractive option for both urban and rural areas (Richards, 2009).Cultural attractions have become particularly important in this modern form of pilgrimage called tourism. Not only do cultural attractions such as museums and monuments constitute the largest sector of the European attractions market, but they are also increasingly being placed at the centre of urban and rural development strategies and image enhancement programmes (Richards, 2001). For example: sites such as the Louvre in Paris, the British Museum in London and the Metropolitan Museum in New York, Eiffel Tower, Big Ben, the Coliseum come to represent entire cultures and attract millions of visitors to their displays of culture. These attractions are held in awe, not just by those who travel from afar to gaze upon them, but they also become important elements of national or even international consciousness and identity.
In Latin America, community development is fostered through cultural tourism because most relevant sites bear outstanding universal values (Isa, Ariyanto, and Kiumarsi, 2019).Latin American cities such as Columbia are endowed with a rich legacy of buildings, public spaces, and urban structures which are generically termed cultural heritage potentials (Rojas, 2002). For example, pre-Columbian monuments and structures in Columbia are interspersed with government buildings, churches, convents, hospitals, military installations and defensive walls built during the colonial period that are often refined examples of baroque or neoclassical architecture and the military engineering of the period. Houses, some of which date from the 17th Century often surround the monumental structures. These cultural assets have been enhanced with the addition of public buildings, residences and various types of industrial architecture typical of the late 19th and early 20thCenturies, which are increasingly priced by the communities. The government has defined and implemented measures that prevent such historic sites from becoming only a beautiful place for tourism, something that could lead to prioritisation of the expectations and desires of visitors to the detriment of local communities (Isa, Ariyanto and Kiumarsi, 2019).
India has unique cultural heritage potentials managed by Indian Railways such as the three World Heritage Sites: Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Blue Mountain Railway in South India and Victoria Terminus Station and other prominent cultural heritage potentials like the Palace on Wheels. Amongst Indian destinations, West Bengal has a distinct image, with strong associations on cultural tourism. For example, most districts of West Bengal exhibit their own cultural heritage. The aspects which are very attractive items for both international and domestic tourists are momunents, museums among other (Wang, 1999).
The government has put in measures to preserve and revitalise the soul of cultural tourism to reflect the city’s unique character by encouraging aesthetically appealing, accessible, informative and secured environment thereby ensuring development in Indian rural and urban communities.
Zambia is predominantly a copper mining country which is also the main source of income for socio-economic development (Mustafa & Saleh, 2017). Zambia has abundant and largely untapped natural cultural resources which can be developed to support development in Zambia. For instance, the country currently has 23International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Category II protected Areas that is (20 National Parks and three Wildlife/Bird Sanctuaries), 36 Game Management Areas; several forest reserves; over 100 National Heritage Sites, over 50 registered traditional ceremonies, Scenic Monuments (Kalambo falls, Chishimba falls, Chipoma falls, Kundabwika falls, Lumangwe falls), historical monuments (Niamukolo Church, Goodnews Monument and Chambeshi Monument) are also found there and archeological monuments (Mwela Rocks and Nachikufu Cave). Although tourism is currently described as an emerging industry and the fastest growing industry in the world, Zambia has not taken advantage of its huge potential to tap into the global market. It has performed poorly in the area of revenue collection and is the lowest in the region in comparison with countries of similar potential (Chomba & Sianjobo, 2014).
Cultural tourism which began in the late 1970s in Cameroon is today gaining ground in the tourism sector (Noudou, 2012).Cameroon also known as “Africa in miniature”,is a country blessed with different cultural diversities which make it a touristic destination for national and international tourists. The culture of Cameroon is mostly expressed through festival, traditional dances and rituals. All these can be observed in some regions of Cameroon, such as the North West, the West, the North, the Littoral and South West. Cameroon, a country with cultural diversity, has during the past few years, hosted different types of cultural events such as the Ngondo cultural event, the Nyem- Nyem annual festival and the Medumba festival among others. Today, many people travel, not only for leisure and pleasure, but also to gain a deeper understanding of the culture of their various cultural destinations in Cameroon. The multicultural aspect of Cameroon has enabled tourists to visit the country, thus making it famous (Noudou, 2012). Cultural tourism in Cameroon is on the rise with awareness being created by the government, the private sector and the local communities even though the industry of cultural tourism is not free from limitation. It can still be greatly developed if proper policies and plans are being furnished and implemented. Cultural tourism has brought development to the Cameroonian economy such as improvement of the tourism infrastructure like roads, hotels, and the provision of social amenities such as electricity and portable water among others at tourism destinations (Noudou, 2012). Mbongeis a Municipality rich in cultural tourism resources such as festivals, traditional musical instruments, among others which if well-developed will boost the cultural tourism and thus development of the community.
Cultural tourism plays an important role in promoting development most particularly in infrastructural and cultural tourism