The role of Cultural Tourism in promotion of sustainable Tourism in Bafoussam I Sub-Division
|Tourism and Hospitality Management|
No of pages
|MS Word & PDF|
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In the contemporary era, more and more cities are increasingly using festivals and events to attract visitors, investment and improve the image of the city itself. The main objective of the paper is to evaluate the contribution of the cultural tourism in the development of tourism in Bafoussam, and enhance the development of sustainable tourism in the region. To achieve this objective, a case study of the Cultural Festival in Bafoussam was selected in particular, together with a questionnaire to evaluate the effects of cultural tourism have produced on the city image for sustainable tourism development. For the research, this is especially significant given the emphasis on what extent and how.
By performing a comprehensive analysis of case study and interview, the main finding is that tourism development in Bafoussam is enhanced when hosting the cultural festival. The methods of induction and deduction are applied to the research process, drawing the conclusion that a successful city festival has a function of promoting the city image in order to foster the tourism industry. Several recommendations and implications will be outlined for future research and the sector, with a hope of this research providing an enlightenment of the importance of using festivals and events as a means of culture-led strategies in urban planning and city development for tourism purposes
This work is presented in five chapters that is the entire structure from one to five. Chapter one comprises of the background, problem statement, research questions, research objectives, research hypothesis, and scope of the study, significance of the study and operational definition of terms. Chapter two is focused on review of past literature on what other authors have written relating to this topic, Chapter three gives the various techniques and method used to collect data, chapter four are the presentations and findings and lastly chapter five are the discussions, conclusions and recommendations.
Various types of cultural tourism have long existed as significant part of human society and they were devised as forms of public display, civic ritual and collective celebration. In fact, people in all cultures recognized the need to set aside certain times and spaces for communal creativity and festivity. Our different ways of life and cultural backgrounds have been seen to motivate the minds of many people to seek novelty and experience new things. Tourism which dates back to the 17th century has seen a transformation in recent years in various branches and in constant transformation when adapting to the needs of the audience and those of the tourist. With no concise and agreeable definition on tourism, scholars in the 1990s approached tourism in terms of demand and supply. Cultural tourism has become a major new area for the tourism demand, with almost all policy makers being aware of the anxious need for development.
Cultural tourism is today a pillar because it serves as a strategy for growth for many
countries and the local people used this as a means to boost their local culture (Richard, 1996). In recent years, tourism has become a fast-growing sector in Cameroon, as a result of the fact that Cameroon commonly known as Africa in miniature is blessed with different cultural and historical events, some of which are celebrated annually.
The United Nation Education scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is it distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual, and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together value systems, traditions and beliefs. In Africa, festivals in traditional African societies are briefly elucidated with the culture and customary practices of a people, expressed in its and crafts, folklore and religion, clothing, cuisine, music and languages. Expressions of culture are abundant within Africa, with large amounts of cultural diversity being found not only across different countries but also within single countries.
The government of Cameroon has in its own rights promoted the tourism industry on both national and international level. Over the past years, cultural tourism has become a source of attraction, as the country has witnessed an increase in national activities, event with the aim of promoting tourism and attracting tourists. Our different ways of life and cultural backgrounds have been seen to motivate the minds of many people to seek out novelty and experience new things. Tourism, which is not that old an industry and which dates back to the 17th century, has seen a transformation in recent years in various branches, and in constant transformation when adapting to the needs of the audience and those of the tourists.
With no concise and agreeable definition on tourism, scholars in the 1990’s approached tourism in terms of demand and supply. Cultural tourism has become a major ‘new’ area for tourism demand, with almost all policy-makers being aware of the anxious need for development.
These various events are of major size and have attracted millions of tourists to Cameroon, and most tourists always come back to take part in such festivals whenever they are being organized. This has increased the number of tourists that enter the country every year.
Cameroon tourism is a growing but relatively minor industry wish stands out with a genuine identity expressing diversity and stability. It is also known for its modernity, Traditional dynamism and calmness. Cameroon has all the beauties of Africa and this explains the author feels no explorer could really discover Africa without having visited Cameroon.
The country’s melting and contrasting views provide tourists with unique spectacles, such
as the ancestral land laying on the sea, deserts, waterfalls, Sahara zone and the temperate climate in the south, and it great heat in the north. The different aspects of Cameroon, such as the relationship between tribal societies and modern cities, the diversity in fauna and flora, and the cohabitation of traditional and democratic leadership, gives tourists the impression that they are visiting different countries at the same time. When tourists visit Cameroon, the feeling of harmony is created by arts, the nature of the people, and sometimes, the tourists go a long way to experience the soul of Africa. The unique and multiple aspects of Cameroon greatly represent the values of Africa. In the 1970s, the government of Cameroon came to realize the importance of tourism which aimed at encouraging investment by airlines, hotels and travel agencies. Cameroon’s government to increase the investment in tourism began on 3 December 1974 when the former president Amadou Ahidjo issued an order that set the tourism industry aside as having special status. During this period, a General Commissariat of tourism was being established and in 1975, the president reconstituted the body as the General Delegation for tourism. (Travel and Tourism in Cameroon 2012) The birth of
the new delegation improved the tourism infrastructure, such as roads and today, the country has different means used by tourists to ease their movement between various destinations. A majority of tourists visiting Cameroon mostly uses road transport followed by air and finally marine. Moreover, the large number of tourists arriving to Cameroon usually land at the Douala international airport, the economic capital of the Country followed by the international airport of Yaoundé to Nsimalen, Yaoundé being the capital.
These various events are of major size and have attracted millions of tourists to Cameroon and most tourist always desire to come again to take part in such festivals whenever they are organized. This has increased the number of tourists that enter the country every year. Despite the fact that Cameroon is blessed with different cultural attractions, this research focuses on the role cultural tourism potential in the promotion of sustainable tourism in Bafoussam 1 sub- division.
Tourism is increasingly becoming an important economic sector in many developing countries (UNTAD, 2007). The industry constitutes one of the major sources of foreign exchange earnings and the most viable and sustainable economic development option, contributing to over 11 percent of the World GNP (UNTWO, 2005). When we look at the different part of tourism, it can be seen that tourism industry offers to travellers and visitors to experience the arts, heritage and special character of a particular place. Therefore, cultural events are a main attraction of tourism sector. Without this, the tourist site would be a boring place. Therefore, festivals are considered to contribute significantly to the tourism and economic development of host communities. The festivals organizers are now using the historical and cultural themes to develop the annual events to attract visitors and create cultural image in the host cities by holding festivals in the community settings. The desire of festivals and events is not specifically designed to address the needs for any one particular group but the need of the growing tourism sector and economic opportunities in addition to social and cultural benefits.
There are so many reasons that motivate people to travel outside their usual places to a destination. Their travel generates economic activities for local people at the destination. The people have effort to suffice and cater for the needs of the tourists or visitors on their journey. Thus, the community could increase their income and welfare. Not just having a contribution to economics, tourism activities also encourage the local values sustainability. The cultural motivation consists of participating in traditional festivals and events, experience the community daily routines, observing artefacts and architecture, and others. Thus indirectly, the community encourages conserving their culture and inheriting the values to the next generation.
Cultural tourism has become a major “new” area for tourism demand, with almost all policy-makers being aware of the anxious need for development. Cultural festival is today a pillar because it serves as a strategy for growth for many tourism industries and the local people used this as a means to boost their local culture. (Richard, 1996).
In recent years, tourism has become a fast-growing sector in Cameroon, as a result of the fact that Cameroon commonly known as Africa in miniature is blessed with different cultural and history activities, which are events organised by communities, event organisers and the government with the aim of promoting tourism and attracting tourists. Cultural event tourism is now being used by local communities to market them as destination region by exploiting the full potentials of hosting cultural event which has attracted both local and international tourists.
Cameroon is endowed with diversities such as natural features, which include fauna and flora, beaches, mountains, rainforests, savannahs and its cultural diversity. It is a country with over two hundred different ethnic groups. Today, the government of Cameroon greatly supports and promotes the hosting of cultural events as a part of the nation building agenda and cultural diversification program, economic development and destination marketing. That is why, Cultural tourism in Cameroon is on the rise with awareness being created by the government, the private sector and the local communities. Cameroon’s rich possessions is a major attraction to visitors who come in annually to be thrilled. It is a great destination during its festival periods where culture and tradition are displayed in style. The Ngondo traditional festival takes place in the month of December and in the country’s economic capital Douala. The main objective of this festival is to celebrate the arts and culture of the Sawa people who live along the coast. Numerous games like the canoe paddling competition will blow your mind. The Nyem Nyem festival takes place in the Adamawa region in July. It celebrates the resistant movement of the people against German control during the foreign period. It is marked by traditional dances.
The Nyang Nyang cultural festival in Bafoussam deals with ancestral rituals and the cultural week period usually observed in August whereby youths all over the nation travel to their villages to pay respect to their ancestors.
The impacts of this festival are the raison d’etre of this study. Many activities are performed during this period like traditional dances, music shows, sport games, wrestling matches. These various events are of major size and have attracted millions of tourists to Cameroon, and most tourists always come back to take part in such festivals whenever they are being organized. This has increased the number of tourists that enter the country every year.
Bafoussam I, a strategic town and capital of the Western Region is located at an altitude of 1450m above sea level. It is limited as follows: To the North by the Municipality of Bafoussam II; to the South by the Municipality of Pete-Bandjoun, to the East by the
Noun River, and to thee West by the Municipality of Bafoussam III.
The origin of the Bafoussam people goes back to the Tikar plain. 1200 years ago, where they lived around the southern part of the Mbam Mountains, along with other ethnic groups. Bafoussam covers an area of 91 km² or 18Km² for the urban area and 73Km² for the rural area and has around 98, 339 inhabitants.
Festivals are cultural events which offer an open window on the culture of group of people. The revolution in festival has been stimulate through commercial aspect to meet the changing demand of local community and businesses.
Festivals and other events play an important role in tourism development and hospitality management, most particularly cultural tourism