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Motivation is a powerful and undisputed learning factor. Augmented reality is directly related to virtual reality and to New Technologies, particularly using the computer, the tablet, the mobile phone or special components to reproduce or simulate a real environment or to create a fantastic scene, can encourage learning motivation. Augmented reality is a concept with which several sectors have been familiarized, such as medicine, security bodies, transport companies, etc. In addition to the aforementioned areas, augmented reality can also be used in the field of education as a motivation factor to learn French. So far, the teacher has mostly the supervisor’s jurisdiction, but using AR as a learning tool can successfully promote autonomy, motivation and great results to the class and make it more interactive and energetic. The purpose of this study was to investigate if AR can contribute to the development of oral skills of French learners. In order- to examine this suggestion, twelve learners, aged 8-12, of A level have been participated in this project. There were divided in two teams. Half of them they were at the control group, in which there was realized traditional teaching and oral production in French in the class, and the other half of them participated at the experimental group in which there was applied an AR Smartphone application, in order to learn and produce French. The project took almost two months and the results were valued according to the teacher’s journal and the learners’ interviews.


Key words: virtual reality, augmented reality, new technologies, motivation, education


     Undoubtedly, language is an important factor in the formation of the child’s personality, which is closely related to education. Moreover, schools are linguistic environments of intense and profound influence. For most of the day, students engage in language both on a written and spoken level as it relates to thinking, learning and intellectual development.

     Today, with the radical entry of technology into our lives, software that is suited to language learning in electronic environments has been created, so learning becomes more interactive and immediate. More precisely education has become to familiarize more and develop a technology-enhanced learning, that emphasizes on innovative technologies like augmented reality, mobile learning (m-learning), ubiquitous learning (u-learning), serious games and learning analytics, in order to goal to a better learning experience and increased satisfaction for the users of enriched multimodal learning environments (Johnson, Adams Becker, Estrada, & Freeman, 2014). 

     Augmented reality is usually associated with new technologies, particularly with the use of gadgets such as mobile phones and tablets. This is an old concept, but in the last few years we have become more familiar with it, as many sectors can now make use of it. The term was first stated in 1990 by Tom Caudell, a former Boeing researcher. There was a variety of AR applications in the late 1960s and 1970s, that were capable to augment the real world by using virtual data.  By the 1990s, there were many companies that used AR in order to visualize and train their employers. Nowadays the possibility to own a personnal computer or a mobile device is common and affordable for every individual, consequently the concept of AR can be easily and widely applied, even in traditional educational environments.

     There are several definitions that characterize the AR. El Sayed, Zayed, & Sharawy (2011) notes that AR by adding extra information in real life by the use of virtual objects to real life. Also Chen & Tsai (2012) states that AR enhance interaction with 2D and 3D virtual objects that appeal into the actual world and Cuendet, Bonnard, Do-Lenh, & Dillenbourg, (2013) who argue that AR is refered ton the projection of digital materials into reality.  Moreover Wojciechowski & Cellary (2013) define AR as an extention of virtual reality.

     However the AR field is still very immature and there is little research, it seems to be a beneficial educational tool. Studies have emphasized at the increased motivation that provoke to its users during the learning process. (Liu & Chu, 2010; Di Serio et al., 2013; Jara et al., 2011; Bujak et al., 2013; Chang et al., 2014). But not only this, there is a respectful number of benefits. More precisely as Diegman (2015) points out in his research, AR in education increases motivation, attention, concentration and satisfaction. It also enforces student-centered learning and improves collaboration. It provides more details and information accessibility, as well as interactivity. He also argues that AR improves the learning curve, the memory and increases the creativity. Last but not least, its costs are affordable.

     Regarding the field of education, the educator has the role of supervisor in his work and by using technology and introducing augmented reality into his class, he manages to transform the lesson into an exciting process, between virtual and real world. The purpose of this paper is to approach the subject of augmented reality and how it can ameliorate the teaching work, the learning of French and especially the development of oral skills. The main goal is to enhance the oral production of French, because it has been noticed that usually the learners have issues with their speaking in the target language. The researcher aim to give them the motive to express themselves in the target language and the same time make them feel comfortable and self-confident while doing it.

     This dissertation consists the following chapters. The first three chapters are the theoretical part, where basic concepts of the study are presented and developed, too. In particular, in chapter 1, the concept of augmented reality is clarified and presented in detail. It is a chapter dedicated in presenting AR, comparing it with Virtual Realty, as well as, its software, how it actually works, and its educational potentials. Some kind of AR platforms and mobile applications are mentioned and also described. Chapter 2 presents the concept of language education as well as various aspects of it. More precisely it is presented the importance of learning French as a foreign language and the skills that a student can develop by this process. It is also mentioned that motivation is a very important factor that affects significantly the learning progress, as well as collaboration between the learners and promoted autonomy. Which gives the turn to Chapter 3, where there are presented New Technologies and tools that can positively increase motivation and encourage collaboration between the students inside the class. Moreover it is analyzed how AR can improve the experience and French language learning, as well as its potentials into a school environment. The purpose of the present study and the research questions that were posed re included in Chapter 4, as well as the design of the activity that was implemented to the young learners of French language, with the use of an AR mobile application in order to develop their skills. Chapter 5 presents the implementation of the procedure, the participants, the demands of the activity as far as the knowledge and the practice. This chapter is completed by the evaluation of the project, according to the teachers journal and the learners’ interviews, and of course the results. Lastly, Chapter 6 includes the discussion about this project and the conclusions that were provided by the research. There are also mentioned some limitations of AR as an educational tool, beneath its benefits.



     Virtual reality is an artificial environment created on the basis of a computer and in such a way that the user considers that this environment is the real environment. On a computer, virtual reality mainly occurs through vision and sound. The simplest form of virtual reality is a three-dimensional image, which can be accessed based on the keyboards or the mouse of the computer. The term refers to this, therefore refers to the technological capability of a computer to artificially create a software environment with which the user can interact (Βurdea&Coiffet,2003). Consequently, the purpose of virtual reality is to allow a person to experience based on aesthetic-kinetic and cognitive activities in a digitally created world that has aspects of the real world.

1.1 Supervisory gadgets the precursor of virtual reality in education

     The enormous potential offered by supervisory tools in education through the processing and exploitation of vast amounts of information make them an important tool for teaching and learning. This is because they not only provide easy access to information, to knowledge, but also because they offer liveliness and simplicity in the subject matter, in relation to the traditionally established school manual. They offer freedom of interaction to the pupil in a pleasant way, as well as the tendency to discover. They enable the teacher to make his teaching creative and enjoyable. Thus, he/she performs his / her work better, which is not overpowered at all, on the contrary it is upgraded, thus giving the pupil easier access to knowledge. Therefore, his role is better and substantially utilized (Weaver&Bollinger,2008).

     Supervisors presenting the various information and data can be considered as the pre-angel of virtual reality, as they bring the student into a world other than that of the book. Some, such as the computer or the interactive table or touch panel, can be considered as a rudimentary form of virtual reality (Weaver&Bollinger,2008). However, in order to better understand the issue, it is then necessary to present the most important supervisory tools used in education.

1.1.2 Augmented reality

     Augmented reality is the superposition of reality and elements (sounds, 2D images, 3D, videos, etc.) calculated by a computer system in real time. It often refers to the different methods that can realistically embed virtual objects in a sequence of images. It applies as well to visual perception (superposition of virtual images to real images) as to perceptions such as tactile or auditory perceptions. These applications are multiple and affect more and more areas, such as video games, education through play, virtual treasure hunts, cinema and television (post-production, virtual studios, sports broadcasts …), industries (design, design, maintenance, assembly, piloting, robotics and telerobotics, implementation, impact study, etc.) or the medical field(Jurgenson,2012).

     Augmented reality is one of the emerging phenomena allowed by the development and democratization of information and communication technologies at the end of the twentieth century and it participates in certain forms augmented by collaborative work and the collaborative economy (Noelle, 2002). Augmented reality devices usually consist of helmets or glasses and a visualization system to show the user the virtual information that is added to the real one. The headset incorporates GPS systems, necessary to accurately locate the user’s situation.
The two main visualization systems used are the transparent optical screen and the image mixing screen. Both one and the other use virtual images that are shown to the user mixed with reality or projected directly on the screen (Rosenberg,1992).

     Modern augmented reality systems use one or more of the following technologies: digital cameras, optical sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes, solid state compasses, etc. Sound processing hardware could be included in augmented reality systems. Camera systems based on augmented reality require a powerful CPU unit and a large amount of RAM to process images from those cameras. The combination of all these elements is often found in modern Smartphones, which make them a possible augmented reality platform (Noelle, 2002).

      Augmented reality is a particularly suitable and affordable technology for teaching because of its ease of capturing students’ attention by immersing them in virtual worlds related to the various branches of knowledge, which can help in learning the contents of each subject – cognitive object. Of course, much remains to be done. The possibilities of augmented reality and education are endless and bring many benefits to students of all ages. Also, a great advantage of the augmented reality is that it can be combined with the internet, which is accessible to almost all schools in the country.

     How it works? In fact, the technology adds computer-generated images to real-world images through a mobile phone’s camera or specific video glasses. Small cameras located in the middle and outside of each lens send continuous video images to two LCD screens on the inside of the glasses via a mobile processor. Once connected to a smartphone or computer, the glasses combine computer data with reality filmed live, creating a unique stereoscopic field of view on the LCD, where computer graphics superimpose those of the real world.

     Embellishing fictional objects a video sequence from a fixed plane poses little problem. Targeted applications often require a lot of realism, it is essential that the addition of objects in a scene does not disturb the coherence of the filmed content. Moving the camera, however, involves movement in the image of the filmed scene. To ensure coherence between the two real and virtual flows, a rigid link must be maintained between the two worlds. In order to give the illusion that these fictitious objects belong to the same world, it is necessary to place them well, to orient them well and to respect scale factors in relation to the objects actually filmed. Placing virtual objects in relation to the objects in the scene requires knowing the position of the camera in relation to the scene. The problem of the location of the camera is therefore important and can be solved by various approaches. It can be used a system of sensors, such as magnetic sensors that measure the magnetic field distortion to calculate their position, optical sensors, encoders on the engines of the cameras’ feet or, of course, the video stream.

     In the case of the use of sensors external to the system of shooting, the information of this system (angle, position, focal length) is recovered using sensors and the incrustation is directly reproduced with the good scale on the image to increase.
However, if one only considers the information acquired by the camera, the augmented reality problem is reduced to a problem of computer vision. In some application contexts such as cinema, all video is available before processing. In this post-production perspective, heavy processing in terms of computing time can be envisaged. Techniques allowing both the 3D reconstruction of a number of points of the scene and the 3D location of the camera are implemented by auto calibration or beam adjustment techniques. Commercial software based on this principle is already available (Antley,2012).

     In the context of interactive applications the use of auto calibration techniques is not possible. Techniques allowing the location of the camera from the current image (and possibly previous ones) are necessary. If a model of the scene (or part of it) is available, the calculation of points of view is obviously an ideal solution to this problem. In the case where the 3D structure of the scene is (partially) unknown, other approaches, relying for example on the calculation of the displacement of the camera, are conceivable (Antley,2012).

1.2 Software


     Software is a set of machine-interpretable instruction sequences and a set of data necessary for these operations. The software therefore determines the tasks that can be performed by the machine, orders its operation and thus provides its functional utility. The sequences of instructions called programs as well as the data of the software are usually structured in files. The implementation of the software instructions is called execution, and the machine is called computer or calculator. Software can be categorized as system, application, standard, specific, or free, depending on how it interacts with hardware, based on business strategy and program source code rights. The term proprietary software is also used (Beier, 2001).

     The software is created and delivered at the request of a customer, or they are created on the initiative of the producer, and put on the market, sometimes for free. In 1980, 60% of production and 52% of global software consumption is in the United States. The software is also illegally distributed and the market value of the products thus distributed is sometimes higher than the turnover of the producers. Free software is created and distributed as commodities produced by cooperation between users and authors(Noelle, 2002,p313).

     The development of software is a complex process. This is systematized by software engineering, a branch of computer science. Here, the creation of software is described step-by-step in a process from analysis to software modeling to testing as a repeatable process. As a rule, the software is repeatedly adapted and extended after development. The software life cycle can be several years. Software is developed using specific methods and tools. Different stages of development are run through in each of which different intermediate levels of the software arise: Analysis activities (numerous development documents)-Programming (source code) in operation (machine code or executable code). In the narrower sense of execution on the computer only the latter is considered ‘software’. In this context, software is subject of system programs: If, for example, a compiler reads the source code of a program, processes it, and generates a machine code or intermediate code, it is considered data. Once created, software can be duplicated at a relatively low cost, usually through data carriers, advertising, and packaging and paper-based documentation. Software does not wear out through use but is subject to software aging over time.

    Software is mostly interchangeable, capable of updating, correctable and extensible, especially if existing policies are adhered to and the source code is available. Because software can be developed using many different programming languages ​​and in many different operating systems and system environments, software standards are required to make information ‘cross-system’ and enterprise-wide ‘understandable’ and interchangeable. While the sale of a computer device often focuses on computer hardware, it is primarily the software that gives the computer its added value. The English word software was originally used to describe everything that is intangible in a computer: programs, data, documents, photos (Díaz,2016).

     Software is not synonymous with computer program. Software is a set typically composed of several programs, as well as all the necessary to make them operational: configuration files, bitmaps images, automatic procedures. the programs are in the form of binary code as well as sometimes in the form of source code. The two main categories of software are application software and system software. The application software is intended to help users perform a certain task, and the system software is intended to perform operations related to the computing device. The most important piece of software is the operating system. It is used to manipulate computer hardware, direct software, organize files, and interface with the user6. Commercially available software is always intended for use with one or more specific operating systems (Οvermann,1988; Díaz,2016).

     Software is commonly classified as follows (Οvermann,1988; Díaz,2016, Fuegi & Francis, 2003):

  • System Software: Application-independent software that enables or supports running application software (such as operating system, device drivers, and utilities)
  • Support software: Programs that help with development, maintenance, or provide non-application-specific services (such as editors, compilers, virus scanners, database management systems, …)
  • Application software that supports the user in the execution of his tasks and thereby gives him the actual, immediate benefit (e.g. a spreadsheet)
  • Standard software is created by a software vendor for use by several / many customers who can purchase this software.
  • Individual software is individually created or modified for a single user to solve a specific task, alternatively by a software provider or by their own developers or development departments of a company.
  • Legally, a distinction is made when purchasing software between individual software and standard software: For individual software, a work contract or work delivery contract is concluded, the purchase of standard software is considered as a purchase in kind.
  • Source code, intermediate code, machine code, device drivers, and other required modules (shipped as a program library)
  • Installation programs and associated instructions
  • Additional documentation such as documentation for software developers and software users
  • Software according to the type of embedding
  • Non-embedded software to be installed later
  • Software permanently embedded in a device for its control (e.g. in a ROM or as part of an embedded system) is referred to as firmware or as embedded (or embedded) software

     Specific software is built to meet the demand of a particular customer, this type of software can be created by the IT department of the company that uses it, or it uses a software editor.

     Standard software is created in order to be sold in supermarkets, and meets the lowest common denominator of the needs of different users. Standard software is aimed at an anonymous market, sometimes as a result of a pilot experiment meeting the specific needs of certain consumers.

     According to the rights granted by the license agreement, we speak of (Οvermann, 1988). :

  • Proprietary software when the author reserves the right to distribute and modify the software.
  • Free software or Open source software when it is allowed to run it, access source code to study or adapt to its needs, redistribute copies, modify and redistribute the software.
  • Freeware or freeware, for proprietary software that can be distributed, copied and used for free, without license fees.
  • Shareware , when the author authorizes others to distribute the software.

     As far as augmented reality software is concerned, it could be said that  for coherent mergers of real-world images, obtained with a camera, and virtual images in 3D, virtual images must be attributed to real-world locations. That real world must be located, from images of the camera, in a coordinate system. This process is called image registration. This process uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking. Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited in a similar way from visual odometry methods. In general, the methods consist of two stages:

     In the first stage we can use the detection of corners, regions, edges and threshold, and the methods of image processing. In the second stage, the real-world coordinate system is restored from the data obtained in the first stage. Some methods assume known objects with 3D geometry (or fiduciary markers) present in the scene and make use of that data. In some of those cases, the entire structure of the 3D scene must be calculated in advance. If there is no assumption about 3D geometry is structured from the movement methods. The methods used in the second stage include projective geometry, adjustment package, representation of the rotation with the exponential map, Kalman filter and particle filters.

1.2.1 Augmented reality tools for designers (DART)

     The Designer’s Augmented Reality Toolkit is a programming system that was created by the Augmented Environments Laboratory of the Georgia Institute of Technology to help designers visualize the mix of real objects and virtual. They calculate the actual position and orientation of the camera in relation to physical markers in real time. It provides a set of tools for designers: extensions for Macromedia Director – a tool for creating games, simulations and multimedia applications – that allow the coordination of objects in 3D, video, sound and tracking information of augmented reality objects. They connect to the computer to give the user a sense of depth. (Οvermann,1988; Haller, et al.2006)

1.2.2 Software for augmented reality

     According to the international bibliography on this topic, the software used for the augmented reality is as follows(Madden,2001,Diaz,2016,Rosenberg,1992;Hills,2018):

     ARToolKit, library licensed that allows the creation of applications of augmented reality, originally developed in 1999 and  published by the Lab of the University of Washington. Currently it remains an open source project hosted on SourceForge with commercial licenses available at  ATOMIC Authoring Tool: is a multiplatform software for the creation of augmented reality applications, which is a Front end for the ARToolKit library. It was developed for those who are not programmers, and allows you to quickly create small and simple applications of augmented reality. It is used under the GNU GPL license

     ATOMIC Web Authoring Tool is a project son of ATOMIC Authoring Tool that allows the creation of augmented reality applications to export them to any website. It is a front for the Fartoolkit library, which is a library written in ActionScript 3.0 that is based on the Java ARToolkit. This library is under GPL license (free for non-commercial use, provided that the source code is made available to the community) and developed by Saqoosha. It is used under the GNU GPL license.

     Blender is a multiplatform computer program, dedicated especially to modeling, lighting, rendering, animation and creation of three-dimensional graphics. Also of digital composition using the procedural technique of nodes, video editing, sculpture (includes dynamic topology) and digital painting. In Blender, in addition, you can develop videogames since it has an internal game engine.

     Unity is a multiplatform video game engine created by Unity Technologies. Unity is available as a development platform for Microsoft Windows, OS X and Linux. The development platform has compilation support with different types of platforms. As of its version 5.4.0 it no longer supports the development of browser content through its web plugin, instead WebGL is used. Unity has two versions: Unity Professional and Unity Personal. In addition, since the 2017.2 version, it integrates the Vuforia SDK, for the realization of augmented reality content.

     AR-Media10 is a complement designed to improve the software of third parties that have augmented reality functionality. This script is useful both for digital designers and for users who want to turn their projects into an augmented reality. It recognizes both flat figures and large 3D objects. It is available for 3D Max, SketchUp, Maya, Cinema 4D, Vertorworks, Scia Engineer.

     HP-Reveal (formerly called Aurasma) is an online web platform for creating augmented reality content. It has an application for IOS and Android.

1.2.3 Augmented reality platforms

     Platforms are type of software that allows a group of people to share documents being in distance. The platforms foster the collaborative work. Working groups can be of two types: open or closed. There is always the possibility to send an email to an administrator to be admitted to the group if it is visible. A small group may also be visible or invisible to those who are not members. For example, a group working on the development of a strategic prototype may not wish to make its activity public. Finally, groups can be closed as far as writing is concerned, but open with regard to reading or vice versa. The notion of working group is based on the complementarily, solidarity and interdependence of its members. The simultaneous presence of the members as a means of coordination is, according to the groups, necessary but not exclusive or exclusive. The groups adopting the groups as additional and not exclusive means of coordination are considered as distant groups. These groups, however, allow interactions between members of the group, they opened the door to working groups using them as the only means of coordination. Groups engaging in frequent interactions exclusively using groupware are called virtual groups. Augmented reality platforms are made up of internet-based technological tools that allow you to create a customized application or use existing applications in Google Play and App Store. Augmented reality applications are created through tools for building apps, APIs and services (Rosenberg,1992,p.21):

     Viur12 is a platform that allows you to create digital experiences quickly and safely thanks to its content management portal where you can upload and edit videos and 3D animations, have the option of creating white label applications, integrate augmented reality modules into applications existing, as well as use Viur App.

     Blippar13 is a platform that allows you to create augmented reality and publish it through its various tools, it has SDK to integrate augmented reality to existing applications.

1.3 Visualization techniques

     There are three main techniques to show augmented reality(Rosenberg,1992,p.32):

     Augmented reality glasses

     The augmented reality glasses are used to show both the images of the places in the physical and social world where the user is located, as well as the virtual objects on the current view. The movement of the glasses must be followed by a sensor so it is not necessary to be connected to a computer. This tracking allows the computer system to add virtual information to the physical world. Its main advantage is the integration of virtual information within the physical world for the user. The graphic information is conditioned to the view of the users.

     Hand or cell phone screen


     The handheld device with augmented reality has a computer device that incorporates a small screen that fits in the hand of a user. All the solutions used to date by the different handheld devices, have employed techniques of overlaying on the video with the graphic information. Initially handheld devices used tracking sensors such as digital compasses and GPS that added markers to the video. Later the use of systems, such as ARToolKit, allowed us to add digital information to the video sequences in real time. Nowadays, vision systems such as SLAM or PTAM are used for monitoring. The handheld screen promises to be the first commercial success of augmented reality technologies. Its two main advantages are the portable nature of handheld devices and the possibility of being applied to camera phones (Rosenberg,1992).

     Spatial projection

     The augmented space reality (SAR) makes use of digital projectors to show graphic information about physical objects. The key difference is that the screen is separated from the users of the system. Because there is no screen associated with each user, it allows user groups to use it at the same time and coordinate the work between them. SAR has several advantages over the traditional glasses placed on the head and on the hand screens. The user is not obliged to carry the equipment on top or to submit to wear of the screen over the eyes. This makes the space projector a good candidate for collaborative work, since users can see each other’s faces.

     The space projector is not limited by the resolution of the screen, which does affect the previous devices. A projection system allows more projectors to be incorporated to expand the viewing area. Portable devices have a small window to the world to represent virtual information, but in a SAR system you can show a greater number of virtual surfaces at a time in an indoor environment. It is a useful tool for design, since it allows to visualize a reality that is tangibly passive (Rosenberg,1992).

1.4 Levels of augmented reality

     The so-called levels of augmented reality can be defined as the different degrees of complexity presented by applications based on augmented reality according to the technologies they implement. Consequently, the higher the level of an application, the richer and more advanced its functionalities In this sense, Lens-Fitzgerald, the co-founder of Layar, one of the most widespread augmented reality browsers today, proposes a classification in four levels (from 0 to 3) (Rosenberg,1992):

  • Level 0 (linked to the physical world). The applications hyperlink the physical world through the use of barcodes and 2D (for example, QR codes). These codes only serve as hyperlinks to other content, so there is no record in 3D, or tracking of bookmarks.
  • Level 1 (RV with markers). The applications use markers -black and white images, quadrangular and with schematic drawings-, usually for the recognition of 2D patterns. The most advanced form of this level also allows the recognition of 3D objects.
  • Level 2 (RV without markers). Applications replace the use of markers by GPS and the compass of mobile devices to determine the location and orientation of the user and superimpose points of interest on real-world images. At this level we also have the recognition of surfaces, where the device is able to detect, in real time, a surface in the environment through the images obtained by the camera and position the digital content anchored to that surface.
  • Level 3 (Increased vision). It would be represented by devices such as Google Glass, HoloLens, high-tech contact lenses or others that, in the future, will be able to offer a fully contextualized, immersive and personal experience.

1.5 Augmented reality and education

     The use of augmented reality can be seen as an effortless and natural consequence with the help of the electronic sub-master. The use of computers as a training aid has a long history in the school field at an international level that goes back to the early 1950s. Since the appearance of the microcomputer in 1977, computers have been considered as an important form of education (Pantelidis X.X).

     There are two ways to use augmented reality that could be utilized in the classroom: the first is the traditional desktop computer where the student explores a virtual environment using a computer, keyboard, and mouse. The second augmented reality option, which still looks alien to modern educational – school data –  is clearly more resilient and requires the student to wear a special sensor hat and, of course, the glove – to achieve interaction – within a virtual environment. This environment can be supported by a series of large computer screens. Through these two choices, the learner can come in contact with the subject and develop a different interaction with the one created with the use of the textbook (Pantelidis X.X).

     Thus, the use of augmented can take off the learning process. For example, French  students can have the opportunity to explore a cultural building or a particular historical period such as French Revolution. They will be able to walk to a French city and explore various aspects, of it. This is a great way for students to learn about everyday life in France, which brings the everyday life to the eyes of children in such a way that books or conventional supervisory tools are not able to do so. This is because it is sometimes easier for students to see and hear something than to portray it as a theory. Consequently, students have to leave the classroom environment and move to an environment where they can experience learning.

     So what we are saying is that virtual reality can be used in many areas of the curriculum. This includes mathematics, English, science, history, geography, as well as newer subjects such as design technology.

     After all, modern students respond to the use of a computer that leads to learning beyond traditional teaching methods. These augmented learning cases are an ideal way for pupils to participate actively in the classroom.

     Students can touch and manipulate objects in a virtual environment and create a greater perceptual ability. They also have the ability to interact with sets of data, complex types and abstract concepts that may previously have considered them inaccessible. For some students, learning by doing and telling is easier than learning by listening.

     There are many advantages that AR brings to the educational world (Azuma,1997:356) , such as

  • Enrich the information of reality to make it more understandable to the student.
  • Create multimedia training environments.
  • Power ubiquitous and mobile learning.
  • It facilitates the elimination of superfluous information that may hinder the observation of important information.
  • It allows to create safe laboratories or simulators for students.
  • You can convert students into “pro-consumers” of learning objects in AR format.
  • Power enrich written documents with complementary information in video clip or audio podcast.
  • It facilitates the development of an active formation.
  • Create playful and motivating environments for training.
  • It allows the viewing and observation of an object from multiple perspectives, which are selected by the student.
  • The created objects can be used in different methodologies and teaching strategies.

     On the other hand, this new educational trend also presents a series of difficulties or disadvantages (Azuma,1997; Diaz,2016):

  • Lack of investigations.
  • The novelty of technology that requires minimal technological skills for teachers and students.
  • The novelty of technology.
  • The lack of learning objects for their incorporation into teaching situations.
  • The cognitive dissociation produced by interacting in a context that mixes the real and the virtual.
  • The teacher’s training for their educational incorporation.
  • Not having a consolidated conceptual framework for its incorporation.
  • Which is little known to teachers.
  • The speed of how it is evolving.

     It should be mentioned that augmented reality has also some other problems. In fact, one problem is the technical burden of augmented reality, especially the tracking of images during movements. The sensors are also affected by the movement. So there is noise, drift and shading of the tracking system .A combination of, for example, GPS with inertial and optical navigation is therefore common in advanced systems. Another problem is the power supply. The currently available batteries are not enough to provide mobile augmented reality systems for a long time. The availability of data, authoring and high complexity of data can also lead to problems. In order to make the embedding of the virtual scene in the real scene as convincing as possible, data are required that also describe the environment in terms of its geometry. Based on this, virtual sections can be drawn through real objects and the occlusion of the virtual objects by the real objects can be calculated. However, this geometry data is not always available or current. Full integration of virtual objects into real scenes requires hiding background parts so that the objects do not appear transparent. Systems that completely replace direct vision with camera images do not have this problem but are unsuitable for many applications. Also, there are social percussions, too. Since in addition to buildings, monuments and other static objects with ever better hardware and software, people could also be integrated into applications for augmented reality through facial, speech or clothing recognition software, this has far-reaching implications for society (Milgram et al, 1995; Azuma,1997



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