AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF RADIO PROGRAMMING ON RURAL DWELLERS
|JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION|
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This study was undertaken to ascertain the impact of radio using Baruten as a case of the study.
The study provided background information in the history of radio programming and radio kwara.
It also sought to find out the problems associated with the dissemination of development information by the radio to the rural dwellers.
The method used is the case for the study and the study employed the use of questionnaire in gathering data.
A total number of 180 questionnaires were analyzed and graphically explained with the use of table and simple percentage method.
The data analysis revealed that radio programming has had much impact on rural dwellers.
The study therefore, recommend that community radio programming should be encourage and spread widely for effective information dissemination in rural areas.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media of communication i.e.; the channel through which information is conveyed to the general public. Such channel includes; radio, television, newspaper e.t.c.
The radio as a medium of communication is one of the most ambitious.
The most effective and cheapest means of communication. Apart from its primary response of informing, educating and entertaining the public, it provides opportunity for man to understand both his immediate and distant environment.
Programming on the other hand is the broadcast programming of a radio formed or content that is organized for commercial broadcasting and public broadcasting of radio station.
According to Zuma 1 (2011), the radio is a nation builder instrument, it can be a important partner in the drive to make rural area economically and socially viable.
As a means of communication, the radio is unique in both its portability and ability to reach people in urban and rural areas.
It can be use to transmit music, speech and other information to a large audience.
For Daramola 1 (2001: 55), radio reaches every corner of the globe.
The rural community most especially relies on it for information because it breaks language barriers and illiteracy.
This is why it is an effective tool for disseminating development information to the rural areas for adequate communication growth.
As it may be, this study will examine the impact of radio programming on rural dweller using Baruten as the study.
1.1.1 HISTORY OF RADIO PROGRAMMING IN NIGERIA
The term “Radio” has its root in the Latin word, “Radius” which means a spoken radius ray.
Radio’s etymology become obvious when it is realized that in physical sense, radio is essentially the emission of ray or wave that bear signal called programs the wave which are generated by a transmitter are propagated, an aerial or an antenna that represent the central of a circles for reception by radio set turned to the frequency on which the transmitter is radiating.
According to OLULANDELE et al, radio programming in Nigeria began in 1932, through the establishment of the radio distribution services.
It was as a result of the urge a determination of the British colonial authority to link the colonies with the writer country to serve as an instrument of propaganda for the Britain and the whole world. So the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) empire service was introduced.
Radio programming in Nigeria also began as part of the departmental and post and telegraph; which was then Public Relation Services.
The post and telegraphs engineers used the station in programming programs through wires connected to loud speakers located at different points in Lagos.
After three years of experiment, the country realized it could operate this system which heralded the establishment of wired broadcasting that was named “Radio Distribution Service” (RDS).
On June 16 1951, the Nigeria Broadcasting Service (NBS) was firmly established by Governor John Stuart McPherson.
It was later changed to Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) and began operation in April 1957 by an act of parliament.
However, the glamour for the right of reply Chief Obafemi Awolowo led to the formation of radio and television station in the western region, Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) responded on October 31, 1959.
In 1975, the Murtala-Obasanjo military regime declared its intention to halt the proliferation of radio station in Nigeria by creating a centralized organization in to cater for the whole country.
The government enacted the federal radio corporation of Nigeria Decree no 8 of 1978; which gave the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN), right overall existing radio station the country with the reorganization, it assumed its new name and four zonal offices were created in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu and the radio skill is in existence today.
More so, many private radio station have been established as a result of the promulgation of the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) Decree No. 38 in August 24, 1992.
This Decree gave right to the ownership of broadcasting station by private individuals.
For Richard Aspinall, (1971) the use of wireless for popular programming was a consequence of the world war of 1914 – 1918.
The fighting services needed improved equipment and large number of wireless signal.
It was these near who on their return to civil life held the demand for broadcasting services.
Early radio was very much a novelty for listeners and broadcaster alike.
The early receiving software bulky and difficult to tune the loudspeaker had not been invented and listening was limited to headphones
In the studies there were no mixing panels, no magnetic microphones, no electrical pick-ups and certainly no tape recording.
The microphones had to be shaken before use, like a bottle of machine gramophone records were played by gramophones in front of open microphones.
But the radio has gradually metamorphosed into a digital state that rural dwellers can carry everywhere even in their mobile phones, Ipods and small radio sets.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
As Daramola (2001: 104) rightly observed, the radio as a medium of mass communication bridges the gap between the government and the governed. It is a two – way communication that provides companionship through human voice and exhilarating music.
Therefore, it is undoubtedly clear that radio programming can act as a catalyst for rural development because of its versatility of informing hundreds of thousands listeners at different times of the day. However, this can be more effective in the rural community through the use of local dialects.
Thus, what impact does radio programming have on the people living in rural community?
How do they perceive information disseminated by the various radio stations?
Through what ways do the media messages mobilize them to participate in the development process of their community and the nation at large?
How credible are the content of radio programming?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study seek to find out what impact does radio programming has on rural dwellers using Baruten people as a case study.
This research will further ascertain the reaction of the people living in rural community to radio message, how this message impact their way of life most especially in the area of development and if radio programming as a medium of communication; has been able to bridge its gap between the government and the people of the community.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this study, the following research questions are formulated:
1. Have radio stations been effective in disseminating development information?
2. What influence does radio programmes have on rural dweller lives?
3. Does radio serve as a link between the government and the rural dwellers?
4. What measures should be put in place to ensure effective and efficient radio programming to the rural community?
5. What impact does radio programming have on rural dwellers?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable the various radio stations to understand and appreciate their strengths and weaknesses in order to know areas to improve for effective information dissemination.
It will also assist radio owners and managers in describing better policies of enhancing communication programmes in the rural areas.
More so, it will bring to conscious the relevance of radio programmes to the rural community in order to enable them appreciate it and comprehend message efficiently.