Effects of Time Management on performance of employees. A case of CDC Bota Limbe
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This research is on examining the effects of time management on employee performance, a case study of CDC Bota Limbe. The specific objectives of this study were to investigate how time is managed in CDC Bota, to investigate how time management affects employee productivity and to make necessary recommendations.
The research design used is quantitative. A total sample of 50 respondents was selected and the technique used to obtain the sample is systematic sampling.
The primary data were collected through the use of a questionnaire
The major findings of this study revealed that employees of CDC Bota Limbe are aware of the potential of managing time at the workplace. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis. Keywords involve in this research study include; time management and employees performance
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In the world of today, major theories do exist on time management and they can be classified as being endogenous meaning it helps to improve employees’ performance (Atkinson et al., 1980.)
Time management is one of the major issues faced by organisations today and thus if time is effectively managed in any organisation or company, it would improve its productivity all things being equal.
However, it is worthy of note that employees’ performance is not only boost by the nature of the job but also by other incentives which account for the reason why many organisations have implemented other means of influencing employees to work at their full capacity.
Extra allowances to hard-working employees and other fringe benefits are prime examples.
The recognition of the importance of time management in the world is traced back to the period of scientific management in 1911 as Taylor together with the work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth became the launching pad for today’s time management (Taylor, 2012).
In scientific management, the relationship between time management and the performance of work was restricted to manual workers.
In the 1950s time study was introduced as the method for effectively coping with time issues on the job (Drucker, 1967).
It was also the result of increased competition in the world and the need to achieve the goal within a short time.
Taylor’s scientific approach to management, aimed at shop management, centred on the principle of effective time management.
He advocated better use of time through which payment to employees was much considered to the goal achievement. An awareness of time management started to take a chance in the human mind, whereby planning became a strategy, thus many organisations tried to increase their production through scheduling, setting goals and prioritising the tasks.
The ability to manage time effectively becomes fundamental to work performed after the world has realised time wasters in the 21st century that had never been seen.
The development of communication technology, for instance, cell phones, and the internet have become major agents of time wasters nowadays that has brought many requests or suggestions of things to do than ever and has influenced the failures among employees in accomplishing their task on time (Erwin, 2009).
The situation has increased ahead deck to managers in different angles of the world on finding alternatives that can improve work performance of individuals in the organisation, although different techniques have been developed to utilise time better, for instance, enacting of laws and regulations to shape the behaviour of individuals at the workplace and motivating employees time management is the only alternative for the aims of achieving high productivity within a given time frame.
Moreover, the perception of time management as an important phenomenon in the workplace has increased because many organisations have realised the cost of losing time (Taylor, 2012).
Morgenstern (2009) suggested the “DO’s “and “DON’TS” of time management that helps improve employees’ performance.
They are: mapping everything important, making task lists, creacreatingoasis of time to control saying “NO” setting priorities, don’t drop anything and don’t think a critical task will get done in one spare of time.
With all these, it helps the employees to manage their time efficiently thus paving success for employees’ performance.
Prioritized by Organising, Streamlining, Economizing and Contributing about time management (POSEC) is a method that dictates a template that emphasizes on average individuals’ immediate sense of emotional and monetary security.
This acronym suggested that effectively communicating and participating with employees, gives them the desire to effectively manage the time allocated for them to carry out their activities and thus improve their performance.
More so, a cauterization scheme for time management approaches have been offered by Steven et al.,(2009) and they are; First generation (clocks and watches), second-generation (planning and preparation based on calendars and appointment), third-generation (being efficient and proactive using any of the above-said tools).
Around the 1980s most people and organisations whose aim was to do more work in less time were caught in the act by time management.
The keyword used everywhere was effectiveness and timetables were made available which fitted the activities according to their daily schedules “Time is money” was the popular slogan used everywhere and it was an exciting experience with lots of energy though it was not sustainable.
In 1980, Desiree Steinmann said that working 60-80 hours a week might be alright for a while though it may have consequences like family disorder and a lot of stress on the part of the worker which may result in illnesses.
In 1990, time management took a new dimension as opposed to 1980. In light of this, many families separated as there was no time to be together and share the family bond.
The burn-Out system was a disease that was on everyone’s lips looking at the hind side we realized that when people are separated from their desires and value while focusing only on output productivity, then burn-out is bound to occur.
Today, recent theories have shown that a normal task that looks like three years to do about ten years ago now operates in barely a year which implies too much stress.
Employees in all organisations are expected to be motivated for their efforts which in essence will lead to high productivity and also, organisational efficiency will be attained when time is effectively managed. Employees are motivated and their time is well spent if these rewards are high and the reverse will be the case if they are low.
Job evaluation is a criterion used to determine the relative worth of a job and welfare facilities such as canteens with substantial prices, transport, accommodations in the host of others should be provided by the organisation as it helps manage organizational time the effect of which is an enormous increase in productivity and thus improved employees’ performance.
Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities especially increasing effectiveness, efficiency and productivity. It involves a certain range of activities like planning, allocating, setting goals, delegation, monitoring, organizing, scheduling, prioritizing, just to name a few.
Time management has been divided into subsets of other different concepts like project management, attention management and personal knowledge management (Stephen Smith 2010).
According to Lufunyo (2013) nowadays time management is seen as an important technique that allows managers in the organisation to accomplish more, serve more and if undertaken in a good way, is a customer-oriented profession.
Effective use of time is an active, not passive, undertaking rather than simply recording dates, times and details of meetings and tasks (Gupta, 2012).
Although time-management had its start over a hundred years ago, the need for time management is greater than ever.
As the pace of life increases, the perception of time changes whereby people in the organisations are considered superior performers when achieving their goals on time.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The success of all whole of the management process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling depends significantly on the appropriate management of time.
In life, it is not all about doing the right thing, but doing the right thing at the right time. It has been noted from previous studies that the effective management of time is a major factor for individual and organisational success (Devos et al., 2008).
Despite all the positive contributions of time management to an organisation, employees still find it very difficult to appear for work on time, especially in CDC Limbe where late coming has become the order of the day.
And as such, this study is out to investigate the effects of time management on employees’ performance, to continuously sensitize the employees in CDC about the benefits of managing their time properly.
In the course of this investigation, we have to answer the following research questions;
• How is time management carried out in C.D.C. Bota?
• Does time management affect employees’ productivity?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of time management on employees’ performance.
Specific objectives include;
1. Investigate how time is managed in C.D.C. Bota.
2. Investigating how time management affects employee productivity.
3. Making necessary recommendations based on the objectives
1.4 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
Here a statement is made to determine whether or not time management affects employee performance.
H1: Time management significantly affects employee productivity at CDC Limbe
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The key reason for undertaking this research is to determine the effects of time management on employee performance at CDC Bota Limbe.
This study is also important in the following aspects.