Research Key

The Emergence and Prospects of Fast Food Services in the Kumba Municipality

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Tourism and Hospitality Management
Project ID
International: $20
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 MS Word & PDF

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Fast food industry is one of the world’s fastest growing sectors in food industry. Fast food is the food item that can be prepared and served very quickly. There is the misuse of food additive which leads to chemical contamination and food poisoning within restaurants in Kumba. This is attributed to the absence of training may lead to food handlers contaminating food by malpractices linked to a lack of knowledge about the basics of use of additives. Most of the fast food sectors in Kumba require minimal knowledge during the recruitment and selections of their staffs as results staffs are on able to handle food well couple with the high rate of employee turnover which generally hate the industry irrespective of it location. The study seeks to investigate the evolution of restaurants within Kumba Municipality and the notion of fast food products, to examine the benefits of fast food products on rising food demand in the Municipality of Kumba and to identify the problems associated with fast food services in Kumba Municipality. The study made use of both primary and secondary data that were obtained through field survey, questionnaires and interviews. Data collected were analysed with the aid of Microsoft Excel Vs 2016 and presented using percentages and tables. Data obtained from the field proved that some challenges were affecting restaurants in providing fast food in Kumba such as high cost of food stocks, competition, funding schemes and poor preservation of food. The study recommends that in order to overcome the challenges of high cost of food stocks and seasonality, restaurants should get into partnership with suppliers or develop a supply chain in order to avoid the issue of high cost and also it will serve time on their part.





This chapter delineates the background of the study on the emergence and prospects of fast food services in Kumba Municipality. The study has been structured into five chapters, with chapter one as the introductory chapter presenting; problem statement, research questions and specific objectives of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, assumptions, the delimitations and limitations of the study. The following chapter 2 reviews the literature relating to the main concepts, including theoretical framework borrowed by the study. Chapter 3 presents the methodological approaches carefully selected in the current research project and outlines how the author engaged with relevant ethical issues within the research project. Chapter 4 provides the results of this study which are presented following objectives of the study. Chapter 5 concludes by expanding the discussion of the findings and provides recommendations base on field study

1.2 Background

Fast food industry is one of the world’s fastest growing sectors in food industry. Fast food is the food item that can be prepared and served very quickly (Webster Dictionary, 1951). Encyclopedia Wikipedia defines fast food as “food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients and served to the customer in a packaged form for take-out/takeaway”. Because of commercial emphasis on speed, uniformity and low cost, fast food products are often made with ingredients formulated to achieve a certain flavour or consistency and to preserve freshness.

Historically, fast food was developed and stored in cans within the 19th century and used mainly for military purposes. It became very popular during WWI (Kawash, 2013). During WWII, more contributions towards the development of frozen foods and its industry accelerated (Ensminger, 1994). Modern fast food started in the United States immediately after WWI. (Gosse et al., 2008). Many of these products were designed to meet up storage longevity and to ease preparation within the battle field. After the war, most of the food companies made use of the leftover facilities to create industries that produced freeze-dried and canned food for home use (Rudolph et al., 2012). This new focus on fast food together with the use of technology, labour has been alleviated and meals that were traditionally prepared by women with longer hours are now prepared with less time, though more expensive (Mavrer, 2017). In most parts of Europe, fast food has been influenced by a combination of technological innovation with social and cultural innovation (Earle, 1997). From foods for passengers in bus and train stations, to portable packs within buses, planes, and cruise ship, trains, the convenience food industry has broaden its scope in production to meet  the rising demand of customers’ demands (Frei, 1996).

Since prehistory, when life on earth began, human beings have fought and struggled for food. With the passing of the centuries, humans started to cultivate the land, to farm and to raise animals in order to make eating easier and less laborious. Eventually people started to barter, and later to sell their products, to exchange food for other goods or to earn profits from them. Before WW II, all over the world the people used to eat in very simple ways using only local and seasonal products as they were constrained to a geographical area. Another important change occurred in the role that women played within their family: as the men left to fight in the war the female population had to replace them working in industry. While their disposable income increased, the time they could dedicate to housework decreased drastically, with a consequent rise in demand for industries that could produce readymade food in their place (Froham, 2013).

After the War, the processed food that was initially developed for soldiers on the frontline became produce for grocery stores and restaurants in towns and cities. This phenomenon became even more evident when Richard and Maurice McDonald understood the importance of making food quickly, selling it cheaply and spending less time and resources in looking for the best quality food sources and in the final product. The two brothers redesigned the food preparation sector, as in the automobile assembly line, in order to achieve the product at a lower cost. McDonald’s was the first of a series of fast food restaurants that, in a brief period, managed to compete in the market by offering reasonable products at a low price. However, very soon studies started showing how cardiovascular problems, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, cancers and obesity, all diseases related to poor eating habits, were drastically on the increase (Froham, 2013).

The results were analyzed by several scientists, as, for example, Ancel Keys who observed how, unlike monounsaturated fats, saturated fats caused heart diseases. In 1968, Senator George McGovern, head of the Senate State Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, started out on a mission to fight bad dietary habits. He worked on several food assistance programs aimed at formulating science based recommendations on which healthy foods Americans should eat in order to lower their risk of heart diseases and other chronic illnesses. The word” Dietary Goal” was first published in 1977 and stimulated reactions in the scientific community, in the food industry and numerous public health organizations (Froham, 2013). 

Soon food producers had to face a new challenge: awareness about healthy nutrition was increasing, the slogan “you are what you eat” became more and more representative of the people’s new mindset. However, whilst people wanted to consume food with no fat, it was actually the fat that gave it flavor and so, once it was removed, the consumer no longer found it attractive. The industry had then to invest millions of dollars adapting to the consumers’ new requests but also maintaining the products’ appeal. Not only fast food chains tried to diversify and introduce new lines of products such as salads, fruit and organic food, but also competition between restaurants and fast food chains that offered healthier foods increased. As people looked for healthy alternatives, this phenomenon caused the decline of many conventional fast food companies that in the past had been market leaders (Froham, 2013).

According to Safar et al (2002) Americans eat fast food for a variety of reasons, but most of these reasons tie into a central theme of convenience. Fast food is quick, relatively cheap, and made by someone other than you or a family member. America is a country with plenty of hard-working citizens, so time and money are often highly valued. It is pretty simple to swing your car into a drive-through and order an inexpensive meal for the family within minutes. This can be more wildly appealing than coming home from an eight-hour work shift, preparing a meal, and then spending an hour or two cooking it. If that is not enough, supermarket prices can be spendy, and grocery trips can be time-consuming.

Knutson, Stevens, & Patton (2015) Fast food restaurants in the United Kingdom may not be as widespread as fast food restaurants in the United States, however, the industry has seen relatively steady growth over the past decade in the UK. That being said, in 2021 the market size of the fast food and takeaway industry in the UK dipped to 18.9 billion British pounds as a result of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The previous year, 2020, saw approximately 2,067 restaurant closures in the UK as a result of lockdown measures related to the pandemic.

Fast food has been a part of Australian culture for decades. Some people say that it has negative impacts on society, but there are also a lot of positive effects that fast food provides. Fast food is a quick and easy way to get a meal. With the rise in technology, people don’t have as much time to cook as they used to. Fast food restaurants provide an affordable and convenient option for those too busy or too lazy to make their meals. Fast food establishments also give people jobs and opportunities for advancement. In addition, fast foods provide many nutrients that aren’t found in other foods like vegetables or fruits, which can be good for our health (Nina & Mark, 2012).

According to Nandy (2004) the emergence of the fast food industry has, transformed urban food culture in India to some extent. In India, fast food culture emerged after independence. Eating at home used to be a significant aspect of Indian culture. However, over a period of time, with a growth in the number of nuclear families, economic growth and increasing per capita income as well as globalization, fast food culture gained prominence. Similarly, children also resorted to fast food due to their exposure to global urban culture and western cuisine which accelerated their desire for cheap and delicious fast food. Moreover, fast food costs less than traditional meals commencing with appetizer and concluding with dessert.

Earlier, the locals of United Arab Emirates (UAE) had the habit of eating nutritious and freshly cooked food in the warmth of their homes. Recent times have witnessed a change in this perception due to changed preferences of the people – especially the younger lot (The United Arab Emirates, 2010). They now prefer having fast food such as burgers, French fries, shawarma (a local non-vegetarian delicacy wrapped in a khuboos), etc. There are several reasons that can be attributed to this change. The transformation from home-made food to fast food has been so severe and wide-spread that people have become addicted to fast food in the UAE. Besides considering the reasons for this addiction, this paper will also explain (briefly) the implications of such an addiction (Musaiger, 2012). 

The fast food industry has only recently developed in Mongolia and an increasing number of global fast food chains are now entering the market every year. In recent years, domestic and foreign direct investment has drastically increased, becoming an important driver of economic growth. Furthermore, Mongolia’s food and beverage business is one of the most advanced local industries in terms of technology, equipment, and know-how and seeks to capitalize on thenation’sabundantagriculturalresourcestonotonlymeetthelocalmarketdemand, but also export to neighboring countries. With an increasing number of people eating out, the industry offers a major opportunity to capture a larger consumer base. As a result of the trend, international food chains are investing huge amounts of money to grab a share of this highly lucrative market. They are spending all their resources and efforts to understand their customers better and give them the best possible services (Zhu, 2020).

According to Habib et al. (2011), the fast food industry in Malaysia is dominated by American franchises which include A&W, Burger King, Domino’s Pizza, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), MarryBrown, McDonald’s, Pizza Hut, and Subway. These fast food trademarks have acquired prestigious recognition in the process of Malaysian Generation. Meanwhile, the Malaysia Population (2018) affirmed that the young generation make up the largest segment in the entire Malaysia’s population which consists of 12.67 million citizens. The young generation have strong purchasing power and they are regarded as the key market segment due to their lifestyle and eating habits that influence their preference on the fast food industry. Moreover, the young generation is always eating out and having takeout food from the fast food restaurant; hence, they are always looking for facilities production that can fulfill the demand of their generation.

The fast food industry in Nigeria is a lucrative sector estimated to be worth over a trillion Naira, with the fast food segment gulping over N25 billion as of 2016.The reasons for the industry’s growth rate are not far-fetched. An increasing number of young urban dwellers, who are time-stressed and increasingly resort to eating out for the better part of the day, makes the fast food industry in Nigeria, particularly the quick service restaurants, a rapidly growing one (Dastane, & Fazlin, 2017).

Fast food is a rapidly growing business in many African countries. In Cameroon alone, market analysts from Euromonitor expect the value of fast food sales to grow an average 12% a year up to 2022 – led by burger sales with an estimated annual growth rate of 21% in the same period. Fast food as the name says has become a life saver for most Cameroonians. All leisure sites pick in on shawarma, burgers, pizza and fries as ideal item to spend a great time. Restaurant owners eventually focus on these foods condemned by the WHO to grow business and generate Income (Darian, Jean, & Louis, 2011).

1.3 Problem Statement

The fast food restaurant business is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. International and local restaurant chains are trying to satisfy the demands of customers for a variety of products and services

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