EVALUATING THE EFFECT OF THE SOCIETYS BELIEF ON GIRL CHILD EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
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Background to the Study
Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially to the youths.
This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such nation.
It is generally believed that the basis of any true development must commence with the development of human resources.
Girls have had various challenges in order to obtain equal education in all forms of formal education in Nigeria.
Findings revealed that Girl child had been in this imbroglio before the advent of the full practice of Islam by the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.O.H).
It could be perceived that access to education by girls is considered a significant indicator for the progress of a society; however, society’s belief is a contributing factor to the bane of girls’ child education, and, children including girls are the future of the nation which they need to be protected and promoted intellectually.
Education is a basic human right and has been recognized as such since the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.
A positive correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in primary school and the gross national product and increase of life expectancy.
Girl-child Education has been promoted by the international development community for over two decades; however, it has proven harder to promote gender equality through education.
There is no doubt that education has social and economic benefits for the general public and private individuals. However, many children girls today are completing primary and even secondary Education.
Improving the quality of education of girls not only improves individual children’s quality of life, but also develops the country as a whole.
However, the following definitions are taken as operational terms:
According to Ocho (2005), Education is the process through which individuals are made functional members of their society.
Education is a human right that should be accorded to all human beings solely because of being human. Many International Human Right institutions advocate for education as a fundamental human right.
These include the 1948 Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the 1966 International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the 1981 Africa Charter on Human and People’s Right.
This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent times for all citizens of the world to have access to Basic Education.
Adeyinka, (1982) Says that education is the art of learning.
(Ugwuadu, & Adamu, (1996) explains education as the art of acquiring knowledge, skills and values for adjustment in society and problem-solving.
Girl child Education is a kind of formal enlightenment given to a girl child purposely to functions successfully in the society and to be useful to herself.
Girls’ education is good economics. It is the best investment in a country’s national development. We know this, educating girls enhances growth rates and reduces social disparities.
NPCN (2009). explains Girls with higher educational qualifications are more likely to be in formal wage employment than those with only primary schooling.
Suen (2013) asserts that a famous African proverb apprises us, “If you educate a man, you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman/girl you educate a family (nation)”.
Bullock, (2002) also proves that the woman in turn trains and builds-up the character of the future leaders of the nation.
According to Murphy (2009), the education of girls in a society determines its social, financial, natural, physical and human capitals, and contributes to its growth and development.
Education is a significant factor influencing the socio-economic and health conditions of the family and for determining gender relations in society.
Moreover, AmartyaSen (1989) stresses that the education of girls strengthens their position in the family and community and thereby produces multiple benefits.
One of the key objectives of the World Education forum on Education for all adopted by the World Summit for Children in 1990 is universalizing access and promoting equity in the area of education.
This Forum identified provision of access, the improvement of quality education for both girls and women and remove obstacles that hampers their active participation and all gender stereotyping in education as an urgent priority area for development intervention.
Bhagavatheeswaran, et al (2016), explains that educating girls has a far-reaching effect on sustainable development and girls should have an equal right to quality education.
Jones (2011), also said, everyone has the right to education. UN (1948), Also contributes that education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages.
The statement proves that when there is free Education at least in the elementary stages girl child will have chances of having education so as to help them in the nearest future.
Andrés & Chavez (2015), asserts that elementary education shall be compulsory.
Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
Education can improve capabilities of a person, and that person can bring positive social change in society.
The human rights model was developed by UNESCO and UNICEF.
This rights-based approach declares that every human being, including every child, is entitled to receive an education, even when one cannot be sure that this education will pay off in human capital terms.
Every child should get access to quality education with dignity and respect, and without discrimination (UNICEF, 2007).
Educating girls is critical for the development of communities and broadly for society as a whole.
Education is the most sustainable way to address global challenges like poverty, health issues, ignorance, lack of tolerance and conflicts, among others. As a male expert summarized, “It is absolutely important to educate girls.
astern philosophy says “while with one hand a woman will shake the cradle, with the other hand she would change the world!” Somani (2017), affirmed that it is widely acknowledged that investments in the health, education and employment of young people, particularly adolescent girls, are among the most cost-effective development expenditures that may be undertaken.
Education is one of the major instruments of social change and it is the force, which brings changes in the traditional outlook of the people, and it develops insight for judging things in their context.
It is visualized that the more the percentage of educated people, the more will be the rate of development.
Education of a girl is like educating a family while educating a boy is merely educating a person.
The importance of female education in a society and its spreading to all section of the life is well appreciated and documented to solve existing and emerging problems of the society.
Girl child Education is very important because the girl is expected to be a mother of tomorrow and the role of the mother will be expected from her, because a woman as a mother is the first teacher and educator of her children, as she is the first contact with the child.
The woman’s personality has an impact on her home, environment and consequently on the upbringing of her children. Islam saddled the woman with this responsibility of child-training and taking proper care of matrimonial home as primary duty.
The Prophet (SAW) was reported to have said: “Behold; each one of you is a shepherd and you will be asked about your flocks.
A leader is a shepherd over the people and he will be asked about his flocks, a man is shepherd to the members of his house and shall be asked about the flocks.
A woman is a shepherd over the members of the household of her husband and his children and she will be asked about them”.
Amachukwu (2006) observed that, a man’s success depends greatly on the contribution of the wife who with education performs her tasks effectively and efficiently in different aspect of life. The educated girl/woman contributed to the success of the family efficiently and excellently.
Statement of the Problem
The research work is designed in order to point out the society’s belief on girls’ child Education in secondary School, Ilorin West local Government area, Kwara State. Girl child right to education has been ignored and remains unrealized for many people despite all efforts carried out by the government in Nigeria.
This study is therefore aim at finding out why this happen to girls despite of efforts by the governments and other stake holders’ investment in education, is still lagging behind in terms of girls’ school enrolment and performance.
That is why the researcher is attempting to establish on the effect of societies belief on girls child Education in secondary School, Ilorin West local Government Area, Kwara State.
Caroline (2011) wrote about girls’ child education in Gambia which also supported the girl Education purposely for the development of the society.
Grace (2010) also wrote on socio-cultural factors affecting girl-child education in Maiduguri, boron state.
This also finally supports the education of the children. Abdigafar, Hellen Willy (2017) also wrote on the influence of socio cultural practices on girl child participation in Secondary Schools in Garowe, Puntland.
The researchers also supported the education of girls’ child base on their stands.
To the best knowledge of this researcher, no work has been carried out on the society beliefs on girl child education, in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State.
This is the gap that this research is trying to fill.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine society’s belief on girl child education in secondary School, Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara state. Specifically it finds out:
1. society beliefs on girl child Education
2. The relationship between girl child education and impact of girl child education on the development of the Society
3. Solution to the impediment of girl child education
This study answered the following research questions:
1. What are societies believe on girl child education?
2. What are the impacts of girl child education on the development of the Societies?
3. What are the effects of girl child education on the societies?
Scope of the Study
This study covered all teachers and female students in ten secondary schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State. The Schools are:
1. Queen Elizabeth School, at general hospital round ago, Sawmill Ilorin.
2. Government girls’ College, Oko Erin Ilorin.
3. Government girls’ day, off Jengbe, Ilorin.
4. Government girls’ day Secondary School, Oke Suna, Ilorin.
5. Government High School, Adeta Ilorin
6. Baraka community secondary School, Ilorin
7. Baboko community secondary School, Ilorin
8. Government day secondary School, Alore Ilorin
9. Sheik AbdulKadir College, Ilorin
10. Government Day Secondary School, Adewole, Ilorin
Meanwhile ten teachers and ten female students will be randomly selected from each of the selected Secondary Schools, to make a total of hundred teachers and hundred female students making two hundred respondents