EVALUATION OF COST ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUES AS A TOOL FOR MANAGEMENT CONTROL
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As a matter of fact, all aspect of accountancy has arisen from practical necessity. Ever since the use of money to replace barter, people have been concerned with costs. However, it was the concentration of manufacturing facilities into factories which gave impetus to the development of recognizable costing systems.
In other word, cost accounting is probably the field of accounting which has developed mostly within the half of this century and there can be no doubt about its growing importance. This is partly a reflection of the growing complexity of modern production methods, which result in a greater capital investment and a higher proportion of competition widening markets.
All these factors necessitate the keeping of systematic and accurate records which will show the cost of goods produced or contract fulfilled.
In summary whilst the early development were almost entirely related to manufacturing concerns, nowadays costing is used very widely indeed, in hospitals, transport undertakings, local authorities offices, banks as well as in every manufacturing concern.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Ever since the use of money is used to replace barter, people have been concerned with cost. As early as 4500BC in Mesopotamia, accounting documents such as stock inventories, wages list and tax assessment were in use.
It is true to say that accounting methods have always reflected the degree of sophistication of the economic circumstances in which they were used.
By the end of middle ages, the main use of accounting method was by government in assessing settlements and individuals for taxation purpose.
From the last 13th century awards, there was a tremendous increase in trading activity in Europe. The existing rudimentary methods of accounting were not sufficient to deal effectively with the many transactions that took place.
Cost accounting provides key data to managers for planning and controlling, as well as costing products and services, and cost accountant are increasingly becoming integral members of decision making teams instead of just data providers.
Modern cost accounting provides information to managers for their decision making. It cuts across all facts of the organization which gives insight into both the manager’s roles and the accountant’s roles. It measures and reports financial and non financial information that relates to the costs of acquiring consuming resources by an organization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Cost accounting methods established in any organization do have some constraints that militate against its objectives despite its indispensability. When new costing system is introduced either in part of production control or either function employers may resent the system.
This ensures if they were not consulted before the system is employed or just as a result of more hostilities from workers.
It has been argued that cost accounting means spending money which will both produce tangible benefit. The cost of installing costing system tends to be high and those of operation even higher.
However, in modern times there is recognition that efficient production requires planning and control. Workers often expect the result of a newly introduced system too soon.
Once their expectations are not met, they tend to give up on the system and will not be ready to cooperate on the next trail. Some manufacturing industries in Nigeria do not recognize the value of cost accounting and take it as a more time wasting and do not create a department for it.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of the study is to evaluate cost accounting techniques as it aid management control.
Management has an important role to play in ensuring that the organization is kept solvent through it control measures as in ascertaining the better price for its goods and services, ensuring that the desired volume of production is secured at the last possible cost in relation to the schedules quality of the product etc.
The measurement of the degree of which these objectives attained depends largely on the existence and effectiveness of the cost accounting system in the organization
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work will help in widening the researcher’s knowledge of the application of cost accounting techniques in an organization for effective management control. This research work will as well add to the existing knowledge on this topic.
The study will also enhance the appreciation to cost accounting techniques as an effective tool for management control in manufacturing industries having taken DOYIN INVESTMENT NIGERIA LIMITED as case study and will also enable the readers to appreciate the importance of cost accounting system in any organization