THE PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF GINGIVITIS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING THE LAQUQNTINI HOSPITAL DOUALA
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Introduction: This study was aimed at evaluating the occurence and the risk factors of gingivitis among pregnant women attending the laquqntini hospital Douala.
Methods: A cross-sectional study will be carried out from July to August 2020 in the laquqntini hospital douala. A convenience sampling technique will be used to recruit consenting pregnant women who will be continuously enrolled until the calculated sample size will bereached. A structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire will used to obtain the socio-demographic and other relevant data. An intraoral examination will be performed by the researcher to assess their oral and gingival health status..
Results: a total of 381 participants will be recruited in to the study. Data will be collected to determine the prevalence of gingivitis among pregnant women based on clinical presentation, past medical history and pocket depth. Data will be entered into Microsoft excel and analyzed using SPSS version 26.0
Conclusion:. The risk factors associated with gingivitis in pregnancy will be identified in this study. The findings will highlight the need of ANC reinforcement, oral hygiene and adequate nutrition during pregnancy.
Gingivitis is an inflammatory process limited to the mucosal epithelial tissue surrounding the cervical portion of the teeth and the alveolar processes. Gingivitis has been classified by clinical appearance (example; ulcerative, hemorrhagic, necrotizing, purulent), etiology (examples; drug-induced, hormonal, nutritional, infectious, plaque-induced), and duration (acute, chronic). The most common type of gingivitis is a chronic form induced by plaque. (American Academy of Periodontology, 2001). Gingivitis is essentially a prudent attempt of the human body to wall-off the destructive aspects of the immunologically mediated mechanisms in response to the presence of a biofilm, which enhances the body to cease such perturbating consequences. Periodontal disease in pregnancy has been associated with an increase in preterm birth and adverse pregnancy outcomes. (Bobetsis YA et al, 2006). However, treatment of periodontal disease in pregnancy has not been shown to improve pregnancy outcomes. (Baccaglini L et al, 2011). An increase in the prevalence and severity of gingival inflammation during pregnancy without plaque association has been reported (Hugoson, A 2017). Clinically, preexisting gingivitis or periodontitis in pregnant women would be worsening dramatically. The periodontal changes are characterized by increasing periodontal probing depths, bleeding upon probing or mechanical stimulation, and gingival crevicular fluid flow, which disappears postpartum (Mariotti A. et al, 2014). In previous studies, it appears that gingival inflammation shows prevalence from 30% to 100% when pregnancy occurs (Mealey B, et al, 2013). Meanwhile, some cross-sectional research showed that the percentage of pregnant women with gingivitis was 89% in Ghana, 86.2% in Thailand, and 47% in Brazil (Rakchanok N et al, 2010)This variation may reflect the different populations studied and their characteristics, as well as the differences in definitions of periodontal disease between studies. (Vogt M et al, 2012)
The result obtained from this study will help the Ministry of public health to develop preventive measures against acquiring gingivitis during pregnancy.
The results and information obtained from this study will also help to highlight the risk factors associated with gingivitis in pregnancy.
Sensitization will be done and this will further encourage the population on how to reduce gingivitis infection.
- What is the Prevalence of gingivitis among pregnant women attending the laquqntini hospital Douala?
- What are the risks factors for gingivitis acquisition among pregnant women at the laquqntini hospital Douala.
- What are the possible preventive measures against gingiivitis infection during pregnancy?