ICTS USED AND THEIR EFFECTS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
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This research was aimed at determining the use of ICTs and its effects on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in the Buea Municipality. Some specific objectives were made such as to identify the use of the different ICTs in schools can affect students’ academic performance, to find out the extent to which the use of these ICTs will affect students’ academic performance and to find out ways in which the extent to which the use of these ICTs in schools will have an effect on students’ academic performance. The literature was reviewed based on the theoretical review, conceptual review and review of related literature by objectives (empirical review) in which the researcher reviewed theories like the cognitive theory of learning by Piaget observational learning theory or social learning theory by Bandura, information processing theory by Atkinson and the Behaviourist theory by B.F. Skinner. It was conducted in Buea municipality using 60 students from three government schools. The research design used was the descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study constituted students of B.G.H.S Molyko, G.B.H.S Buea Town and G.B.H.S Bokwango. A questionnaire was used for data collection and the instrument was validated by the supervisor. The data collected was analysed using the tables of frequencies and percentages. From the findings, it was concluded that the use of ICT tools in the teaching and learning process has an effect on students’ academic performance. The findings implied that the use of ICT tools should be introduced in the teaching and learning process.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Although ICT has several definitions depending on the nature of its use, for this review ICT (information and communication technology) is used as an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. We refer to ICT in the particular context of ICT provision, policy and teacher factors that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education. It has been argued that ICT is a principal driver of economic development and social change worldwide (Kozma, 2005; Leech, 2008). In many countries, the need for economic and social development is used to justify investments in educational reform and in educational ICT. Another notable argument to this effect is by Kelles-Viitanen (2003) who referring to developing countries in general, commented that ICT plays a major role in all aspects of national life: in politics, in economic life, as well as in social and cultural development. She further argued that ICT is rapidly transforming the way people do business, access information and services, communicate with each other and even entertain themselves. The UN ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration (2000) provided special attention to the application of ICT for development, for which urgent and concerted actions at the national, regional and international levels have been suggested. A Microsoft Corporation (2007) report on its ICT initiatives in Africa acknowledged that technology alone does not drive development but enables it. In the report, while noting that 300 million Africans live on less than $1 per day.
The country has to overcome this challenge in order to provide quality education for all. Consequently, ICTs has been introduced in the curriculum of schools in Buea.
The main purpose for the introduction of ICTs in schools is to create highly skilled and educated students (learners).Farrant (1980) states that educational technology is increasingly recognized as an essential part of the teaching profession and therefore now finds its place in the curriculum of most teacher training courses. Due to this, it is important to provide ICT tools like the internet, computer, and network hard and software’s and also other equipment’s and services associated with these technologies in order to go similar with globalization.
Therefore, the integration of ICTs in academics will help learners to expand their learning opportunities and ensure quality education. Some Information and Communication Technology tools may include;
Audio visual that is video games, television, telephone, radio, cassette
Internet printed materials such as pictures, charts; all these tools play a vital and central role in Information Technology on learners.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Following the introduction of online registration at the university of Buea and the recent introduction of “Mobile Money” by MTN and ORANGE network communication companies in Cameroon in general and its implementation into the university of Buea in particular, it is discovered that most of the students were computer illiterate as they could not go through the registration process and the payment of registration fees. It is observed that the various secondary schools these students attended especially in the Buea municipality had no ICTs devices like computer, internet, televisions, radios that could introduce their studies to important learning skills, therefore causing students not to be versed in the use of these devices. This study is therefore aimed at investigating the use of ICTs and their effects on students’ academic performance.
1.3 Purpose Of Study
The purpose of this study is to find out if and how ICTs are used and their effects on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
1.4 Objectives Of The Study
1.4.1 General Objectives Of The Study
This study identifies the various types of ICTs that students use in secondary schools and their effects on their academic performance.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives of the Study
To identify the different ICTs available in schools in the Buea municipality.
To find out the extent to which these ICTs are used in schools.
To find out the ways in which the use of these ICTs impacts on students’ academic performance.
1.5 Research Questions
1.5.1 General Research Question
Do the various types of ICTs used in secondary schools in the Buea area have an impact on students’ academic performance?
1.5.2 Specific Research Questions
To what extent do the different ICTs available in schools affect students’ academic performance in the Buea municipality?
How will the use of ICTs affect students’ academic performance in Buea?
To what extent will the ways used in ICTs have an effect on secondary school students’ academic performance?
1.6 Significances Of The Study
This piece of work will be beneficial to the students, teachers, parents and the general public.
To Students: The study will help produce high quality lessons through collaboration between the students and teachers and also provide a powerful array of tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environment.
To Teachers: The study will produce easier planning and preparation of lesson and designing materials as teachers will be able to use some ICT devices in teaching thereby giving them the opportunity to be able to operate some of these devices and also use them as a medium of teaching such as magnetic boards, projectors, computers etc. It also reduces the use of chalkboards in classrooms as it gives room for the teacher to make use of the digital media world.
To Parents: This study will help ease communication not only to the student and the teacher but also parents as they will either be informed by teachers on their students’ performance in school such as using the internet to contact parents and also parents will be able to partake in the ICT world as their children might ask them to help them in some areas of difficulties they face in ICT.
To the general public: The study will help produce greater efficiency throughout the school as the digital environment (public) will also take part in enhancing the learners in acquiring technological skills in ICTs which will be used in the classroom milieu and also vice versa in that students will give out to the public skills of ICT gotten from the school out there to the public and thereby an efficiency of ICTs in both the public and school.