Impact of climate on Rubber production in pandebono
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The rubber plant is a perennial plant which grows well on the tropics. It belongs to the family Europhorbiaceae. With the most important specie is the Hevea. Which has Hevea traschensis or para rubber which is the most important economic wise. H brasiliensis, H. Spruceana H. Camporum H. Benthamina H.nitida. The study aim at examining the impact of climate on rubber production in pendamboko. and this to advance these, the study adopt methods, data was collected both from primary and secondary sources which was later analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques. Findings reveal that majority majority (55%) of the respondents were of the opinion that, high temperature causes a decrease in rubber production whereas (45%) of the respondents were of the opinion that high temperature causes an increase in rubber production. It is recommended that. The local population should be educated and sensitize through community advisory bodies, the media, public meetings and open house workshops on greater awareness on the impact of climate on rubber production. This will go a long way to boost productivity
This chapter will comprise the background of the study, statement of the problem, which explains the main issues at stake concerning “Impact of rainfall and temperature in the production of Rubber in Pendamboko. It will also consist of the main and specific questions and objectives of the study and the scope and significances of the study which explains the importances of the study to different categories of people in the Nation. The Study Area and its characteristics are also included in this chapter.
The rubber plant is a perennial plant which grows well on the tropics. It belongs to the family Europhorbiaceae. With the most important specie is the Hevea. Which has Hevea traschensis or para rubber which is the most important economic wise. H brasiliensis, H. Spruceana H. Camporum H. Benthamina H.nitida. The most important is Hevea Braschienens which when tapped yield latex which contain matural rubber in the form of poly-isoprene. The plant rubber was discovered in the Amazon basin of South America forest in the 1776 by a group of wire men namely, wigham farris etc, who came across the roots of rubber and coincidentally hit his leg on the root and the whitish liquid was noticed which drew their attention and they started experiment up to its discovery due to its elastic nature of the whitish liquid termed latex. The very first experiment was conducted and 10000 trees were planted in Malaysia. But rubber establishment in cameroon was introcluced in the 1900s and today, planted by in large commercial quantities or scales by companies like the C.D.C, Hevecam, SAFACAM etc. and other smaller farmers owned by individuals.
The C.D.C grow rubber in So many estates such as likombes, mudonge, Pendler-mhake, Missellelle, Sonne, Mbonge Tombel etc. Rubber can be distinguished through, clones with different properties and metabolidism such as GTI, PR107, PB235, PB260, Avros, Habel, RRIC 100, Rim 600 and others PB 5/51 PB217 etc. The best clone is selected depending on, following, Root System or resistance to wind damage other the yielding capacity of the weight of latex in kilos. In planting or nursery establishment we use Gil as the stem of plant due to its good ruoting system, resistant to diseases and wind damage thus rendering the plant to last for more longer year than other clones. But for commercial purposes than other clones like PB217, PB260, PRI07, PB235 can be budded due to their commercial importance in yields and weight of the coop for profit motives, Nursery Establishment in Rubber.
Thailand produced 4.37 million metric tons of natural rubber in 2020, making it the leading producer of natural rubber worldwide by Ndon (2006). This was followed by Indonesia, which produced 3.04 million metric tons. Both countries experienced production declines in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite being the largest producers of this commodity, Thailand and Indonesia consumed less than one million metric tons of natural rubber in 2020. In comparison, China consumed 5.4 million metric tons, making it the world’s largest consumer of natural rubber by far. Natural rubber, also known as caoutchouc, India rubber, and latex, is produced from the rubber tree. China is by far the largest consumer of natural rubber worldwide by Ndon (2006).
Asia is the largest hub for natural rubber production in the world (90 percent of the total global production). The top three producer countries are Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, which together account for about 70 percent of the total natural rubber production globally. About 90 percent of the total global supply is fulfilled by small-scale farmers Onyeka (2002). The production of natural rubber is determined by a number of factors the area for tapping, the yield of trees, as well as farmers’ initiatives for tapping. Also, one must consider that for natural rubber, the planting area does not equal to the area for tapping, as it would normally take 5-6 years before a newly planted rubber tree can start producing latex. It is also vital to understand that the yield of a tree is lower during the first few years of production and increases year-by-year to reach a relatively high and stable level when the tree is about 10 years old. After that, the tree can continuously produce latex for 20-30 years. Due to the long growth cycle of rubber trees, production cannot catch up immediately when there are major demand changes, leading to gaps between supply and demand. During the financial crisis in 2008–2009, rubber trees were felled in producer countries due to the low profitability of rubber tapping Olagunju (1999). This resulted in a rarely seen year-on-year decline of the global natural rubber planting area. In 2009–2010, demand rebounded rapidly, but in the face of insufficient supply, the global rubber market enjoyed a super bull market, which triggered an increase in rubber tree planting Olagunju (2018). In 2010–2012, rubber trees were planted in record numbers, covering about 500 thousand hectares per year, which far exceeded the levels of the previous decade. As rubber production starts some seven years after planting, the trend of the massive release of new tapping area will continue in 2019, Ibe and Nweke (1981), Onah (1987) and Ogbonna (1989). Besides, most rubber trees planted after 2008 were high-yield clones with better resistance and stronger stability.
Cameroon’s rubber plantations were established first by the Germans and then by the French. At the beginning of the 20th century Kei et Al (1997). These plantations were located in the Centre, the South and the East provinces. In the 1980’s the Cameroonian Government launched two smallholder rubber development projects partly funded by the World Bank. Two public agro-industries, CDC in the South-West and Hevecam in the South were the technical operators for the implementation of these projects. Today, the main private agro-industrial entities contributing to Cameroon’s rubber are Hevecam (54,000 ha) and Sudcam (45,000 ha), both owned by Halcyon Agri. Major exports destinations are Europe and the U.S. In 2017, the total production of natural rubber in Cameroon reached 53,000 tonnes (Ministére de l’Agriculture et du Dévelopment Rural, (MINADER) Ibekwe (2008).
Pendamboko is an area which is undergoing under different physical and environment problems which is affecting the production of rubber farming. Such physical problems like Rising temperatures, drought and heavy rain will affect rubber yields and disease outbreaks like convid 19, malarial which is mostly common due to the rate of mosquito’s bite to the farmers. The impact of drought as well as heavy rain on rubber trees are becoming a serious problem, as wet and dry spells have become more frequent, affecting the yields, researchers believes that climate change will intensify these impacts. Generally, weather is expected to become more irregular and unpredictable. Such growing uncertainty is of course a source of risk. With the current Cameroon Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projecting that temperatures will rise by 2°C or more by the end of this century, most rubber-growing areas today are staring at a more uncertain future. And when there is too much rain, rubber trees may be seriously affected by Phytopthora, a fungus that is very common in humid conditions.
Does the climate have an impact on rubber production in pendamboko?
- What is the state of rubber production in Pendamboko?
- What is the effect of rainfall on rubber production in pendamboko?
- What will be done to reduce the effects of rainfall on rubber production in Pendamboko?