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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) have become a worldwide phenomenon affecting even students. This study was aimed at assess the knowledge form three (3) to upper sixth students have on the causes of urinary tract infection, to ascertain knowledge on preventable measures / practices of urinary tract infection among form 3 to upper sixth students, to assess form 3 to upper sixth student’s knowledge on the risk factors of urinary tract infection. Study used cross-sectional research design approach. Sample size was 148, the sampling technique used in the study was stratified random sampling. Both primary and secondary data were used for this study, data was collected with the help of a questionnaire.

The data collected was edited manually; inspected, coded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2016., descriptive statistic such as frequency and percentage distribution of variable were calculated. The analyzed data was presented using table and chart. The study findings revealed that sexual activity increases the vulnerability to UTI., UTI are transmitted from mother to child during birth Wearing of cotton underwear and loose-fitting clothing held reduce UTI, drinking enough water regularly daily reduce the incidence of infection, Cleaning the perineum from front to back helps in prevention of UTI, Urination 4-5 times reduces UTI.

Concerning student’s knowledge on the risk factors of urinary tract infection, the study concluded that, urinary track infections can lead to bareness both in men and women. It further recommended that Awareness programs should be done to increase students’ knowledge about UTIs and make them aware to prevent UTIs and encourage them to visit doctors if necessary, to reduce the sufferings of morbidity related to UTIs.


1.1 Background

According to Tahsein, M. H, et al (2021) Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are characterized by colonization, invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in the urinary system. UTI is an infection of the urinary system that may involve the lower urinary tract or both the lower and upper urinary tract UTIs are considered as the most frequent bacterial infections worldwide, UTI is a common bacterial infection known to affect the different parts of the urinary tract and the occurrence is found in both males and females.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by pathogenic microorganisms in urinary tract (the normal urinary tract is sterile above the urethra). UTIs are generally classified as infections involving the upper or lower urinary tract and further classified as uncomplicated or complicated depending on other patient related conditions.

UTI constitutes a significant economic burden and healthcare utilization. Studies predict that about 8-10% of girls and 2-3% of boys will have symptomatic UTI before the age of 7, with frequency higher in males in their first three months of life and with increasing age, the frequency becomes higher in females than males in children, the prevalence of community-acquired urinary tract infection has been seen to vary with season (Tahsein, M. H, et al, 2021).

Urinary tract infection and its associated complications are the cause of nearly 150 million deaths per year worldwide. The disease can be developed in 40% – 50% of women and 5% of men. The urinary tract is the most common site of nosocomial infection, accounting for greater than 40% of the total number reported by hospital and affecting about 600,000 patients each year. Manifestations of (UTI) account for more than 7 million heath care visits and 1 million hospital admission annually in United States and the incidence of UTI is second only that of upper respiratory infection in primary care.

In this study, we aimed to assess the students’ knowledge of regarded preventive measures of UTIs, and to determine the association between socio- demographical data and their knowledge regarding prevention of UTI (Mafuyai, J. M, 2019)

Studies carried out in India and United States of America showed high prevalence of UTIs while Fouad and Boraie (2018) found percentage of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in East of Egypt, Nile Delta was higher in the first screening with a prevalence of 32.1%, which means that there is higher asymptomatic urinary infection that could be found in adolescents.

In addition, previous study done in Malaysia involving population of men matured 40 and above found that the pervasiveness of lower urinary tract manifestations was found at 42.7% in which the severity of LUTS was analyzed in relation to their age group (Neni, et al., 2020).

In Cameroon, very few studies in Cameroon have addressed UTI in the paediatric population. Motse et al (2019) identified factors associated with UTI and their diagnostic performances in children under 5 in Douala Cameroon. Knowledge of risk factors is necessary to reduce morbidity since UTI will be promptly diagnosed and managed. Because children with UTIs usually present with nonspecific signs and symptoms, the laboratory investigation is imperative as UTI may often be missed on the history and physical examination.

If not appropriately diagnosed and well managed, UTIs may become chronic and result in scaring of the kidney, causing hypertension and renal failure (Che, P. N,2020). However, Cameroon, there is limited evidence addressing knowledge of risk factors and prevention of urinary tract infection amongst secondary school students.

1.2 Problem Statement

The evolving state of risk factors and prevention of urinary tract infection amongst secondary school students in Cameroon have left many questions and controversies with the major concern being the risk factors associated with these infections. Little attention has been paid to this small but growing problem worldwide and in Cameroon. While mortality rates are not usually high, the economic burden is substantial.

There is a link between the prevalence of UTI among female students and the level of personal hygiene (Isah et al., 2013) or the state of toilet facilities in the hostels, sexual activity; another factor that predisposes females to UTI (Staphylococcus aureus for example, which is a member of skin flora might stay on the skin and get transmitted during sexual intercourse) and enhances better transmission of UTI especially in females, who usually have higher prevalence than males as seen in a study conducted by Ojo and Anibijuwon (2010).

Furthermore, the ministry of secondary school, teachers and parents have failed on their own part in creating and promoting knowledge on the  risk factors and prevention of urinary tract infection amongst secondary school students with regards to school curriculum which does not include general disciplines, while the parents on their part nowadays careless about spending time in educating their children on personal hygiene and the risk factors and prevention of UTIs, hence the need for this study on knowledge of risk factors and prevention of urinary tract infection amongst students of from 3 to  upper sixth.

1.3 Research Questions

  1. What knowledge do form 3 to upper sixth students have on the causes of urinary tract infection?
  2. Do form 3 to upper sixth students have knowledge of preventable practices/ measures on urinary tract infection?
  3. What knowledge do they have on the effect and risk factors of urinary tract infection?
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