AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF A CONDUCIVE OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKERS
No of pages
|MS Word & PDF|
The custom academic work that we provide is a powerful tool that will facilitate and boost your coursework, grades and examination results. Professionalism is at the core of our dealings with clients
For more project materials and info!
Call us here
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The office is integral part of a business organization which basically meant for clerical duties. The office shop and railway premises act (1963) define office to be ‘’building or part of building the sole principal use of which is as an office or for office purpose’’ (Mitchell 1969 p:57) stated that:
An office is place were function or activities relating to the office are habitually perform or carried out. A teacher in the class room is in his office, likewise a driver who operates a taxi car. A mechanic who operates by the road side to earn his living is in his office and a shoe maker who mends and polishes shoes for income purpose is operating is his office.
An office can also be seen as a set of rooms or building where people work, usually sitting at desks. The company is moving to new office on other side of town.
An office a room in which particular person works. Usually at asks some people have to share an office.
An office surgery a doctor’s dentist office. And can also (often compounds) a room or building used for a particular purpose. Specially to provide information or a service the local tourist office. A wicket office seen also both office registry offices.
An office is identity for business patronage. An office is purposely design to trend legality to business an section.
An office can be seen an avenue where business operation is performed.
An office is also a place where business transaction is carried out. So where you have premise attached to a work shop in the two work in conjunction both are covered by the therefore, I borrowed the ideal of F. Beaker (1982: 3) who said that
‘’the tool of clerical duties carried out through out
any clerical duties are carried out but also specific
functions which such shall be discussed in the next topic”.
2.2 FUNCTION OF OFFICE
(a) Writing: – this making original record either by hand or with the use of machines such as typewriter or machines.
(b) Copying: – involve reproducing information form original writing or by using machines such as duplication or by photocopy.
(c) Computing: – it involves using arithmetic to calculate price wages cost etc either mentally or with the aid of calculation or other adding machines and computers.
(d) Sorting: – it involves putting the records, into the order in which they can most conveniently. Michelin (1969: 57)
(f) Filling:-this deal with putting the record away for safe keeping
(A) GATHERING INFORMATION:-Kehinde et al (2001:1) operate that ‘’the office is the nervecated of the fact needed for management decisions’’ these fact are get hoed from information racers through letter, telephone calls telic orders etc while internal daily operations or activates.
(B) KEEPING INFORMATION:- Office keeps record of information. Records kept may be financial records, sales records kept may be financial
records or sales records of person working in the organization. They are usually kept in files or registers for future references.
(c) ARRANGING INFORMATION:- information collected must be well sorted out and properly arranged, it is the duty of the office to collect such information the information may be in form of statistical report, financial report, letter or orders etc measure in providing suggestion of the necessary performance.
According to the association of accountancy technicians (1998 : 3) egorionice is the ‘’study of the relationship between people and their work place, including working environment work organization, work practices, and management and information science. Hence ergonomics will include the study of the internal and external factors, the physiological and psychological condition in relation to the subject matter.
“Also defined ergonomic as the sciences of adopting
working condition,. Environment and equipment
design to built the worker’’
He further buttressed his point by saying an ergonomically designed office environment is one that is carefully planned with the workers physicals and psychological well being in mind’’ he strongly and emphasis among all other things, on office land scalping and design while will proved comfort and convenience for the workers.
Akewusople (1992:1) also opened that for business to flourish and goal of profit achieved a conducive business environment must be created’’
state that to maximize both productivity and job
satisfaction work station should suit the need of the
people who work at them he argue that suiting the needs
of the worker is similarly the guiding principles in
deciding how things can best be arrange top fit to an
office organization structure and work-flow.
Disseminated may help the purchasing department to order goods. Sales department to amended press and give quotations personnel department to keep up to date staff record and the account department to provide the share holders with financial statement of the years trading. Some office information is disseminated orally while come are done through letters reports, curricular, memos.
Akewsola (2004:2) summit put by saying ‘’office disseminate information to whole world about it existence.
PROTECTING INFORMATION:- The office personnel must ensure that information is well protected. Kehinde (2003:3) also support this by saying the office protect the business by safe guarding it assents. Therefore the minute book must be protected against fire loss that and against obsolesce.
2.3 FEATURES OF AN OFFICE
(I) An office is usually created and designed to distinguish to form a personal home.
(II) Specialization or division of labour distinguish an office home
(III) According to Akewusola (200:4)’’an office subscribed to the concept or what is called pecking order’’
(IV) Consistence system of cruel and regulation
(V) An office presupposes impersonal relationship granted that an office is human community
2.4 WHAT IS ERNVIRONMENT RELATION
Management should always endeavor to make workers safe, satisfying and cost effective. Therefore critical study of physiological requirement of man to medicine along with other working environment will entrance in no small in a similar related to the is, Henry believed that office environment has influence on ones feeling moral ideal and decorum’’ so everything which is relevant to the word places working practice and method is though out in ergonomics. Hence ergonomics and occupational health are loosely linked and the need for arise from a number of factor including.
(1) The injury rate.
(2) The frequency of near miss accident
(3) the dominance of pain or discomfort
(4) The rate of job turnover or frequency of work stop page.
(5) Job satisfaction
2.5 OFFICE PLANNING AND LAYOUT
Fries etal (1974:207) asset that: an attractive office well planned office is an investment that pays divided to management in higher quality work membership turnover of employees. According to the authors the proper planning it, it entails the plan to be staff and the type of job to be performing in a particular office when planning, the offices environment should considered.
Planning is also referrers to as the act of drafting future intruded actions. It involves planning as well as forecasting are essential proper planning of an offices environment is made to produce more at lower cost, to reduce the amount of time used in performing the work to improve the flow of work to enhance the morale of workers and provide mode comfortable working conditions in their contribution denier teals (1978:11) post that ‘’environment consist of the office building, its furniture and layout as well as the physical condition under which the worker operate therefore in setting up of an office one should consider:
This factor could be brought together and explained to be the necessary considerations an organization should make. The place where an office is located will serve as biophysical and psychological motivation for the workers. An office must be easily accessible, the area where offices are sited. Also avoidance of nice from there street hawkers and located in an office in other words office must be located in a place which will not distract worker attention thing like easy transportation, power supplies, healthy environment which gives good psychological incentive to workers must be consideration in location office
The planning and layout of offices depend to a very large extent on the types and size of business undertaking. Denyer et (197:14) opened that offices layout refers to the calculation of ‘’space requirements and the detailed use of the total; area to provide the best practical arrangement of furniture and equipment’’ office layout concern the within the office office (internal arrangement). It include provision of appropriate areas for junction and senior workers the people to do work and how well work can be done should aim at making for option flow of work and information as well as coordination of work. Employees who frequently pass papers forward should be seated next to each other. According help to increase the efficiency of work to economics the use of available space to improve maintain morale. There are basically two types of office layout they are
– Open office
– Close office
An open office is an office where there are no partitions between the rooms where people are not segregated in to private rooms. It look like a typical factor people an machines are arrange in the office there type of office layout implies and impersonal relationship. A backer (1982:50) observed that ‘’there are constant interruptions. And everything you say is over heard…’’ he went further say that ‘’ one is a usually isolated but continually assaulted by distracting noise exactly the reverse of preferred by work style.
ADVANTAGES OF AN OPEN OFFICE
(1) it is simple to construct economic use of space can be enhanced
(2) There is effective super vision since the supervisor has a clear view of the entire office.
(3) Work and communication flow effectively.
(4) There is economic use of services e.g. lighting, heating and cooling etc
(5) it is expensive because there is no need for partitioning and huge saving on equipment and their use
(6) placement of machines is suitable position
(7) It allows for greater freedom of movement by member of staff.
DISAVANTAGES OF AN OPEN OFFICE
(I) It looks like a typical factor and gives an atmosphere of impersonal relationship those lower the morale of workers
(II) It is usually noise which brings about unnecessary distraction.
(III) Contagious disease easily spread.
(IV) It does not boost the morale of workers.
2.6 FACTORS CONTRIBUTION TO CONDUCIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT.
There are a lot of factors that contribute to conducive work environment which organization are compelled by the offices, shops, and railway premises act 1963 to put in place.
According to Mitcheu (1969: 58) he has to say about the act ‘’the most important provision of the act are those for the health safety and welfare of employs’’ all premises shall be over crowd temperature in very room comprised in or constitution promises which person are employed to word otherwise than for short periods thus what constitute a effect give and conducive work environment include.
CLEANINESS:- Every office environment must kept is a clean and tidy. The factories act 1961, stipulated this in section b 1 accumulation of dirty and refuse shall be removed daily by suitable method from floors, and benches of work rooms and from staircases and passage the floor of every work by washing or if it is effective and suitable by sweeping or other method ‘’(Mitchell 1969: 275)
ADVANTAGE OF A CLOSED OFFICE
i. A close office boost the morale of workers as they now feel important recognized and part of management.
ii. Aids concentration of staff rather than distract.
iii. The health of workers is generally secured. A person with contagious diseases keeps it to himself.
iv. Enhance the image for treating confidential makers.
DISADVANTAGES OF CLOSED OFFICE
i. It used space extensively it is not economical constrict.
ii. More equipment will have to be provided in order to meet the requirement of the staff.
iii. Communication flow is ineffective
iv. People hide to play truancy
v. Supervision is not easy as that of the open office
vi. Work does not flow easily because people will have to lease their desk to pass file by themselves.
AVOIDANCE OF OVER CROWING \THE SAME ACT
Provide for an adequate space for every work to do his work. As noted by chambers (1972: 153) each member of the staff must be provided with 40 square feet of working space and they including passages between desks.
VENTILATION: work room must be adequately ventilated the office, shops, and railway, premises as 1963, section if paragraph
i. “Effective and suitable provision shall be made for securing and maintain by the circulation of adequate supplied of fresh or artificially pinfold air the ventilation of every room in which persons as employed to work.
ii. Lighting of proper light which gives a uniform light intensity should be provided for the works, this will help to reduce glare from display screens and help avoid eye-strain and fatigue. An adjustable light intensity instrument on ergonomically designed screen which will suit to over-head light and cut down on glare be screen.
iii. Marilyn (1983:131) asserts that poor or inadequate light that is too brig ht or glaring can reduce both productivity and work quality and even contributes to lower employee morale.
Noise Reduction: Noise is generally defined as unwanted sound, when it becomes instating it cause tension and fatigue and takes away attention from one’s work.
Farmhand (1985:59) post that the noise level is an environment factor that has an effect of office productivity. Any organization have taken a number of steps combat this probe partially designed sound absorbing panels and partition for example and be used to control noise.
iv. MUSIC: A coherent show sounding music for the worker can harmonize his/ her attention will work
Farmland (1985:60) was at the opinion that when certain types of work are being performed music can reduce the monetary and contribute to a pleasant work atmosphere.
Music: will drive away tension and fatigue and increase efficiency at work, this is because what every please the soul gives sound psychological feeling and set needy to display all possible efficiency to attain excellence on one’s work.
v. DECORATION: Ututu (1994:10), affianced that in planning the physical factors of the office colour must be considered because colour has an effect on the above that different colour have different reflective capacities and this influence both their luminal level available for the various types of work and usual comfort chamber (1972 :153) believes that the habit in many modern offices of providing white walls off- white ventral blinds and gray floor conversing relives only be medium brown wood desks often with black tops, makes and austere environment this and other things like flowers, portraits, photographs all form part of the decoration of an office and it boost the morale of the worker immensely.
vi. FIRST AID: section 24-26 of the office, shops, and railway premises act 1963, stipulates that there should be first aid for workers and there should be a qualified personnel to maintain the first aid box. Also the medical bill of employees must be taken care of at least by a percentage there of.
vii. SANITARY CONVENIENCES: sufficient and suitable convenience shall be maintained for the person employed the sanitary convenience shall be provided for both set even where only sex is employed. Therefore were all this factors are considered in planning an office, then the employees will contrarily in the best in to work for which.