INFLUENCE OF SOCIALIZATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS WITH PHYSICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BAMENDA
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This research work titled “Influence of Socialization on the academic performance of students with physical impairments in the University of Bamenda” has the main objective as to examine the influence of socialization on the academic performance of students with physical impairments in The University of Bamenda. The three hypotheses of the study are being stated in the null form as follows; Socialization does not have any impact on the academic performance of students with disabilities in the University of Bamenda; The peer groups, course mates, friends and neighbors of students with physical disabilities do not have any complexities in their interactions with them and lastly There are no facilities on campus to aid and facilitate the education of students with disabilities. Primary sources of data were used to collect the data here, questionnaires were used for the reliability of our results, descriptive statistics was portrayed through tables, charts and percentages which shows gender and age groups of the respondents, type of disability, socialization with peers, course mates, friends and neighbours. And also chi square was used to test the relationship between socialization and academic performance. The findings show that there is a positive relationship between socialization and academic performance in The University of Bamenda.
This introductory chapter to this research work entails the background to the study, the problematic of our research, the objectives of the research and questions to answered in the research. Also it entails stating the research hypothesis and finally the significance of this study to the researchers and to the university community at large.
In Sociology, Socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained; Clausen, John A. (1968). Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology; humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive. Socialization may lead to desirable outcomes; sometimes labeled “moral” as regards the society where it occurs. Individual views are influenced by the society’s consensus and usually tend towards what that society finds acceptable or “normal”. Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors, maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment; Pinker Steven (2002). Scientific research provides evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and genes. Notions of society and the state of nature have existed for centuries. In its earliest usages, socialization was simply the act of socializing or another word for socialism. Socialization as a concept originated concurrently with sociology. In particular, socialization consisted of the formation and development of social groups, and also the development of a social state of mind in the individuals who associate. Socialization is thus both a cause and an effect of association; Giddings, Franklin Henry (1897).
Education is considered as a virtue which humanity holds at a high esteem. Several national and international organizations have placed a lot of importance on education because of its usefulness to the society. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in its 26th article affirms that education shall be directed towards the full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedom. Similarly, Law No 98/004 0f 14 April 1998 to lay down the guidelines for education in Cameroon in section 2:(1) states that education shall be the top priority of the nation. Durkheim (1925) further highlights that, the major function of education is the transmission of society’s norms and values. This therefore means that education is a precious commodity which is admired by everyone. It is a stimulus to the developmental process of many countries in the world. Thus for education to meet its objectives and equally stand the test of time, it should be inclusive enough and accessible to all learners no matter their deficiencies.
Every student has a legal right to basic and equal educational opportunity irrespective of their difficulties and disabilities. This calls for schools and universities to modulate ways of successfully educating all children with diversity in a common setting. There is an emerging consensus that learners with special needs be included in the educational arrangement set
for the “normal‟ children. This has led to the idea of inclusive schooling, which involves the act of modifying the regular school environment, classrooms, teaching style and
methods befitting all learners in an inclusive setting (Brenda & Brian, 2006). To promote inclusion of people with disabilities, an array of social policies and programs working
coherently to respond and support the person with disability across their lifespan especially at school level is required (Brenda & Brian, 2006).
Social interaction influences inclusivity of people, learners and communities to coexist, share and develop understanding of one another. In a school environment, it promotes
learners with disabilities to enroll in public schools around their homes for a better academic performance. This will put them at par with their physically able peers for competitive educational standards and job market. Hearing impairment, visual impairments, speech impairments, mobility impairments (crippled, leg or arm amputations, etc.)usually affects learners in several ways, such as delayed development of receptive and expressive language skills, delay in general language acquisition, limited access and use of school manuals, lack of self-esteem and self-actualization ((http.www.hearinglossweb.com/olderb.htm retrieved on December17,2017)).
The frequent intermingling of learners with physical disabilities and their peers may narrow the gap of isolation, language acquisition and improvement of receptive and expressive language to better their self-esteem and self-actualization. A study in the United States of America by McVilly (2004), reported that learners with physical impairments often lack friends and experience a lot of loneliness as a result of communication and interaction barrier. Good academic results have generally been observed in learners with physical impairments who are mainstreamed, but they also show higher degrees of isolation and psychological problems due to limited communication (Gravenstede, 2009).
This implies that even in the developed countries, learners with physical impairments are still bound to face some challenges. Shakespeare (2006), cited in Farrell (2009) affirms that even in the most accessible world, there will always be residual disadvantage attached to many impairments. Various reports and studies confirm that the current education system has not managed to adequately respond to the needs of the vulnerable groups, specifically those with disabilities. There are equity gaps in access in terms of physical and curriculum access as well as in educational outcomes due to pervasive challenges in creating attractive learning and teaching conditions.
Most schools may suffer enrolment crisis as a result of parents of physically able learners withdrawing their children from these public schools because of inclusion of learners with disabilities. Some of them may not be comfortable seeing learners with disabilities learning together with their children in public schools. The claim of poor standards of education, low pace of content coverage, the thought of disabilities being congenital and many other allegations crop up. Despite all these, it is advantageous for learners with physical disabilities to learn together with their peers, to interact and learn from one another. It enables them to improve on their hearing ability, spoken language, vocabulary, self-esteem and self-actualization (Wamocho, 2003).
1.3. Problem Statement
Students with physical impairments usually feel withdrawn due to communication barrier, visual defects, and also the unfriendly nature of the school environment for their accessibility to school facilities. Such withdrawal leads to isolation and limits socialization which is key in boosting self-esteem, confidence and actualization to promote academic performance of learners with physical impairments in an inclusive setting.
Socialization of learners with physical impairments in public schools and universities should be encouraged in order to make learners with disabilities comfortable, relevant and at par with their peers in these schools. Socialization, self-esteem and self-actualization are some of the benefits that are brought about through inclusive education (Wamocho,2003).
Boosters of socialization are paramount in doing away with special schools which promote segregation, isolation and disintegration of those with disabilities. All these therefore influenced the researcher to carry out a study on virtues of socialization on academic performance of students with physical disabilities in The University of Bamenda; to help them improve academic performance.
To examine the influence of socialization on the academic performance of students with physical impairments in The University of Bamenda.
In order to achieve the above stated main objective, the following specific objective will be of great importance.
To examine the relationship between interaction with peers and the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda.
To assess the relationship between interaction with course mates and the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda.
To establish the relationship between interaction with friends and the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda.
To examine the relationship between interaction with neighbors and the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda.
The study will be guided by the following research questions;
What is the role of socialization on the academic performance of students with physical impairments in The University of Bamenda?
- What is the relationship between interaction with peers and the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda?
- What are the relationships between interaction with course mates and the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda?
- To what extent does interaction with friends influence the academic performance of students with physical disabilities in the University of Bamenda?
- How has the interaction of students with physical disabilities with their neighbors influenced their academic performance?
Further Reading: Educational psychology project topics with materials