KNOWLEDGE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ON THE RISK FACTORS, PREVENTION, AND COMPLICATIONS OF GASTRITIS IN BUEA
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1.1 Background of the study
The history of gastritis goes far back as it was discovered by “Robin Warren” and “Barry Marshall” in 1983 that a bacteria called campylobacter pylori now called helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes gastritis, a tendency of an etiology-oriented denotation began. For this reason, a group of gastro-pathologist prepared a classification in 1990 in Sydney for the first time to classify and rank gastritis.
Within this period, the findings were important as atrophy and metaplasia in Correa’s chart in 1992 were realized and were included in the first classification. However, due to the differences between observers in the rating of especially chronic gastritis and atrophy over time, the Sydney classification was reviewed and a visual analog scale was prepared by preserving the basic principles. Despite all these efforts, inconsistencies especially in the rating of atrophy drew attention (Sipponen et al.,2011)
Thus, the team that made the first Sydney classification put forward a metaplastic and non-metaplastic atrophy rating 2002, which is aimed at eradicating the disease. Also, stomach endoscopic biopsies are made to determine the diagnosis of the illness its stage, and follow up after the treatment. Hence a good pathologic and clinic correlation increases the accuracy of the diagnosis hence proper diagnosis will lead to adequate treatment and thus the eradication of gastritis (Serra et al., 2014).
This research also brings about stipulated theories one of such was developed by Hempen, (2009) which states that gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach; acute gastritis is characterized by the following symptoms: excessive burning, gnawing, and striking pain in the epigastria.
Furthermore, the Hart fall theory of 1936 says that gastritis is a typical example of minor ailments, but it is associated with many serious and lethal diseases. While Price’s theory of January 2012, states that gastritis is a disease caused by helicobacter pylori, he continues by saying that gastritis is diagnosed correctly in similarity with other gastric disease.
According to Gilson (2009), gastritis is not a single disease, but it means inflammation of the stomach lining. Gastritis can be caused by drinking too much alcohol, prolonged use of NSAIDs, or infection with h. pylori. Sometimes, injury, burns, and severe infection can also cause gastritis.
The most common signs and symptoms of gastritis include; abdominal pain or upset in the chest, belching, nausea and or vomiting, loss of appetite, hiccups and diarrhea in some cases (Gilson,2009) because if not properly handled, it may lead to complications like stomach ulcer and stomach bleeding which might also lead to gastric cancer (Mayo,2011).
Prevalence in developing countries is generally over 80% as compared to 20-50% in industrialized countries. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection is strongly correlated with socioeconomic conditions and prevalence tends to increase with age (Suerbaum and Michetti, 2002).
The disease has shown a high incidence both in developed and developing countries. In industrialized countries like the United States, 20-50% of the population may be infected with h. pylori. The rate of H. pylori infections is higher in areas with poor sanitation and higher population density. And in developing countries like Cameroon, the infection rate is 59-80% (Shah, 2011).
1.2 Statement of the problem
Gastritis is a recurrent pathology amongst people in the society. It appears that most people in society consume a lot of spicy foods, beverages that contain caffeine (Franke et al.,2005), consume drugs like ibuprofen which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)(Laine,1996) that can predispose them to gastritis take in alcoholic drinks (Hi et al.,1996) and go through stress daily.
Gastritis which is inflammation of the lining of the stomach (Oxford language dictionary) can be caused by Bacteria infection (Helicobacter pylori), Use of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and has predisposing factors as Starvation without drinking water, alcohol intake and smoking, and stress. (Laine,1996)
Youthful age is the age which is predisposed to developing gastritis and mostly high school students are the target. Though the manifestation of the disease occurs in the later ages, high school students having knowledge on the predisposing factors and prevention of Gastritis helps limit the incidence later in life. (Nathan et al.,2018).
From personal observation, students especially high school students are predisposed to developing gastritis later in life because of poor feeding habits, stress and engagement in activities which involve smoking, drugs and alcoholism. Poor feeding habits among high school students is also seen as a predisposing factor as many of them avoid eating in order not to gain weight, maintain a good body shape and flat tummy without knowing this can be dangerous to their health.
During my internships in hospitals i noted most consulted and admitted cases of Gastritis both acute and chronic were between the ages 16-40 years old. And most of these patients/clients explained that they had poor eating habits, go through stress both at work and school and also consume alcohol and NSAIDS and all these started during their early ages and the high school period.
And also, most cases of acute gastritis were students both high school and tertiary education especially those who weren’t living with their parents as they scarcely prepare food by themselves but live on roadside food and snack without knowledge of how it was prepared. Even when they prepare food by themselves, they don’t properly cook it and wash it thereby increasing their chances of H. pylori infection
The incidence and prevalence of acute and chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer is increasing and becoming a medical emergency especially at the complicated stages like gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation and management of these cases are very costly and complicated too. Gastritis pose a great threat to the health of numerous adults and it starts from the younger age.
From all these there’s a need to carefully assess the knowledge of high school students on the predisposing factors, prevention and complications of Gastritis in order to prevent life threatening conditions, reduce the incidence and prevalence of the disease and promote good health.
1.3 Research objectives
1.3.1 General objectives
To assess the knowledge of high school students on the Risk factors prevention and complications of Gastritis in Molyko Buea.
1.3.2. Specific objectives
To assess the knowledge of high school students on the possible risk factors of Gastritis in Molyko Buea
To assess their knowledge of the preventive measures of Gastritis in Molyko Buea
To access their knowledge on the complications of Gastritis in Molyko Buea