Organisational Culture as a Predictor of overall Job satisfaction, the case of MTN Cameroon
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Organizational culture has been characterized as the “glue that holds organizations together”.
Culture can support linkages between technology adoption and organizational growth;
it can be a critical success factor in organization growth strategy and play a crucial role in determining the success or failure of organization.
The term ‘job satisfaction’ is quite frequently used for individual attitudes towards the specific aspects of total work situation.
The purpose of the present research was to explore the impact of organizational culture on employees’ job satisfaction at MTN Cameroon.
The specific objectives of the study were to identify the type of culture practiced at MTN Cameroon, to determine the effect of the practice culture on employee’s job satisfaction at MTN Cameroon and to determine the challenges, encounter by management in the preservation of existing culture at MTN Cameroon.
The study employed a descriptive research design to sample 30 employees and staffs from MTN Cameroon Buea head office using a structured-questionnaire through simple random and convenience sampling.
Data was analysed using SPSS (21.0) where by descriptive statistics, correlation and regression test were carried out to calculate the relationship that exist between variables.
The study findings revealed that four major type of culture were practiced to a greater extent were hierarchical, clan, market and adhocracy culture.
Inferential statistics revealed that there is a positive and significant correlation between organizational culture practiced and employees’ job satisfaction.
The study further revealed that major challenges faced by management in trying to maintain the culture of the organisation include; poor communication flow between top-level management and junior staffs, employees are excluded from the decision-making process, high rate of conflicts between staffs, problems take too long to be solved, and high rate of employees’ turnover.
Based on the study findings, it was suggested that MTN Cameroon should have a flexible culture and top management should use the decentralized technique of management so that employees at a low level have authority and power to decide any problem they face according to their authority.
Keywords: Organizational Culture, Employees Job Satisfaction, MTN Cameroon
1.1 Background to the Study
The attention to organizational culture has increased in the late 1980s and early 1990’s when US companies failed to compete with their Japan counterpart in terms of organizational effectiveness (Ojo, 2010).
An organizational success or failure is largely dependent upon the given organizational culture (Sawner, 2000).
It is frequently held accountable for organizational ills and, on occasions, praised for creating positive qualities (Baker, 2004).
The available literature indicates that organizational culture has an impact on employee attitudes (Cameron and Quinn, 2011).
In addition to this, various studies have shown the influence of organizational culture on job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Lok and Crawford, 2004; San and Kim, 2009).
Organizational culture has been characterized as the “glue that holds organizations together Culture can support linkages between technology adoption and organizational growth;
it can be a critical success factor in organization growth strategy and play a crucial role in determining the success or failure of the organization (Sayeeduzzafaret al., 2017).
Organizational culture is the most important instrument for the success of an organization.
A culture can generate a positive or negative way or affects the working environment.
According to Goldstone, (2007), a strong organizational culture can generate motivation, responsibility and loyalty of employees to the organization.
For an organization to be successful both external and internal environment should be considered.
Organizational culture is an important internal environmental aspect and a key concept that can lead an organization either to success or to failure.
Evidence has shown that organizational culture expresses the internal environment of an organization and reflects the extent of agreement between managers and employees’ beliefs, values and assumptions (Aycanet al.,1999).
Analysis of the organizational culture helps identify the structure of the organization and the values of the employees, essential elements in the implementation of leadership and management practices
Organizational culture is quite complex. There are several problems and disagreements associated with the conceptualization of organizational culture.
However, according to Luthons, (2005) most definitions recognize the importance of shared norms and values that guide the behaviour of the participants of the organization.
Culture has been depicting to be “software of the mind” that is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the member of one group or category of people from another (Drummond, 2000).
On the contrary, Robins in Garcia et. al. (2004) affirms that organizational culture refers to how employees perceived their characteristics
According to Schein, (1985), Organizational culture is the pattern of shared basic assumption invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel about those problems.
Furthermore, organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members, in the end distinguishing one organization from the other (Robbins and Judge, 2007).
Cameron and Freeman (1991) identified four different types of cultures: clan, adhocracy, hierarchy, and market.
Every organization can and does have different aspects that identify their type of culture (Lund, 2003).
Also, organizational culture is a set of value system that can enhance an organization to run a successful business in a dynamic environment (Schhneider, 1983).
Organizational culture has the power to glue the employees and helps to understand the functioning of the organizations by sharing its vision, mission, norms, values, rules, and regulation (Deshpande and Webster, 1989).
Those employees who understand the organizational culture well will have greater job satisfaction (Li, 2013).
An organization must establish an organizational culture to maintain its position in the market.
The organizational culture must be developed which may provide support to an organization and bring continuous improvement.
The culture of an organization is very important for the progress of an organization because it impacts on employee commitment and its retention as well.
If the culture of an organization is flexible it will provide such a working environment to employees in which they may work easily and independently without feeling any burden.
Job satisfaction is among the most studied concepts in organizational studies.
Job satisfaction is a multidimensional construct with a variety of definitions and related concepts which have been studied since the beginning of the 20th century.
Smith (1969) suggested that job satisfaction can be categorized based on an individual’s needs.
Individuals are more satisfied when they feel that their abilities, values and experiences are adequately used in the organization (Buitendach and De Witte, 2005).
According to Lok and Crawford, (2004) organizational culture has a remarkable effect on employee’s commitment and performance. If the employees of the organization have more understanding with the organizational culture they will have more job Satisfaction (Chang and Lee, 2007).
According to Hertzberg (1959) in his study job satisfaction is a part of employee job, if it affects positively it motivates the employee to job satisfaction otherwise it leads to job dissatisfaction.
Job satisfaction is the emotional ability of employee related to a positive and negative aspect of its job experiences Locke (1969).
The environment of organization and employee’s traits can influence its job satisfaction Seasohore and Taber (1975).
Continuance commitment makes sure that employee will not quit the organization and will not a response to dissatisfaction and make sure that they remain with the organization (Appelbaumet al., 2004).
Job satisfaction has a very strong effect and it is almost inversely associated with employee’s intention to leave or stay an organization (Egan et al.,2004; MacIntosh Doherty, 2010).
Culture has attracted some attention, mostly with regards to the effect that different types of it or its dimensions have on job satisfaction (McKinnon et al., 2003; and Silverthorne, 2004).
This study following the suggestions of George and Jones (1996) looks into the effect that distinct organizational values have on job satisfaction, in an attempt to provide a clearer and more detailed picture of their relationship.
The expectation is that findings will enrich our knowledge regarding the organizational values that are critical for employees, foreseeing their job satisfaction and in turn influencing their career decisions (Vigoda-Gadot and Grimland, 2008).
Thus this research will employ both qualitative and quantitative methods but emphasize will be mostly on the quantitative type. For addressing the objective of the study explanatory type of research will become the most appropriate.
The study will mostly be explanatory type. Therefore, this study will focus on analyzing how organizational culture can be a predictor of employees’ overall job satisfaction, particularly the role of hierarchy, clan, market and adhocracy cultures.
Several reasons could be given for the failure of an organization but none of them parallels organizational culture. The most frequently sighted reason given for the failure was a neglect of the organization’s culture.
The major distinguishing features of top-performing organizations, their most competitive advantage, their powerful factor and their key ingredient in their success is considered to be their organizational culture.
Using Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) the telecom industry (MTN) will be able to identify its current culture and its preferred culture.
The management team of MTN Cameroon can exploit what employees identify, their perceptions on both existing culture and their desired future culture.
MTN is assumed to have well experienced and well-educated experts to achieve its goal.
Nevertheless, MTN has been losing well-experienced employees from time to time. Such practices create the gap i.e. what is intended and what is on actual practices.
As far as the researcher readings are concerned, there is no similar study conducted on the relationship between organizational culture type and job satisfaction at MTN Cameroon.
A large number of studies have been conducted on the relationship between job satisfaction and other organizational variables; like organizational climate, organizational commitment, organizational performance and structure.
Organizational culture has been studied about major organizational ideas and activities like creativity and innovation (Martins and Terblanche, 2003); productivity and quality (Mathew, 2007) and knowledge transfer (Lucas, 2006).
Notwithstanding the above investigation, few studies have been conducted on how job satisfaction is affected by organizational cultural dimensions and this attracted considerable attention for the study.
Thus, the study will be to analyze how organizational culture can be a predictor of employees’ overall job satisfaction and examines the role each of the four organizational cultures has on employee’s job satisfaction taking Development MTN Cameroon of Buea as a case for this study.
- What is the type of culture practiced at MTN Cameroon?
- What is the effect of the culture practice on the employee’s job satisfaction at MTN Cameroon?
- What challenges are faced by management in trying to maintain the existing culture at MTN Cameroon?
The main objectives of this study will be to analyze how organizational culture can be a predictor of employees’ overall job satisfaction taking MTN Cameroon Buea as a case study.
Specifically, the study seeks;
- To identify the type of culture practised at MTN Cameroon
- To determine the effect of the practice culture on employee’s job satisfaction at MTN Cameroon
- To determine the challenges, encounter by management in the preservation of existing culture at MTN Cameroon.
Assuming that the organization has a formal organizational culture and based on the above problem alluded, the study formulates the following hypotheses:
H0: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and employees’ job
satisfaction at MTN Cameroon.
HA: There is a significant relationship between organizational culture and employees’ job
satisfaction at MTN Cameroon.
According to Ayalew (2014), Intellectuals and researchers in the field confirmed that organizational culture is the most powerful factor and the key ingredient for the success of an organization. Hence, this study attempts to identify the dominant culture at MTN Cameroon and the preferred culture as perceived by the employees of the telecom industry. Thus this study will be practically significant for the following reasons:
- The study will provide knowledge and literature concerning concepts of organizational culture and job satisfaction in telecom industries in Cameroon.
- The findings of the study will create awareness on the part of the management and employees of the organization;
- The study will help to identify the dominant cultural practices of MTN Cameroon and to suggest better solutions that will enhance cultural elements
- Serves as a base for those individuals who have the desire to deal with such similar issues.
- It serves as a starting ground to encourage interested researchers for further investigation.
This study will be conducted to analyze how organizational culture can be a predictor of employees’ overall job satisfaction and to evaluate which type of organizational culture positively or negatively affects the level of job satisfaction and the challenges faced by management in maintaining the culture of the organisation
To do this the nature of the study requires a lot of factors to be fulfilled like taking a large number of organizations as well as respondents, devote and invest a large number of resources i.e., time and money respectively and other related factors.
Because of the large numbers of employees of the telecom industry, the study will be limited only to workers of MTN Cameroon of Buea Municipality.
Further reading: ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE