EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN WOMEN LIVING WITH FGS IN MAGBA
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Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematoda flat worms) of genus Schistosoma .FGS is mostly caused by the presence of S.haematobium eggs lodged in the female reproductive tract. Which results to chronic fibrosis, and scaring. In Cameroon despite high community prevelence of urine-patient, S. haematobium infection is yet to be studied in depth. To understand this infection more, a cross sectional study was carried out in the locality of Magba. This study was undertaken using parasitological sampling, clinical colposcopy, spectrophotometry and interviews. Samples from vagina secrtions, urine and serum were collected from females. Oxidative stress biomarker used was Catalase, will be tested infemale genital Schistosomiasis . At the end of this research, catalase levels were found lower in infected participants than in uninfected participants. . At the end of the survey, the females tested positive were treated and thought methods of preventing and how to control FGS. Finally the research was concluded that , Catalase activity decreases with increase infectivity and also catalase activity was found lower in FGS participants with a mean of 0.88 than in UGS participants with a mean of 0.88.
Schistosomiasis (also called bilharzia) is a vector- borne disease caused by trematoda flat worms of the genus Schistosoma. Fresh water snails act as the vector, releasing larval forms of the forms of the parasite into water. These larvae subsequently penetrates the skin of people who are in that water ( e.g fishermen, ). The larvae develop into an adult schistosome in the body and are either released through urine or cause an immune reaction (if they remain in the body)( WHO , 2022). There are three main forms of schistosomias species which includes, intestinal schistosomias caused by schistosoma mansoni. Urogenital schistosomias caused by schistosoma haematobium. ( Leder, et al.,2009) The most pervasive form is urogenital. These program was chiefly engaged in preventing chemotherapy campaigns administering Praziquantel to targeted groups.( WHO,2016.: Lia et al, 2015.) In Magba as the people where constantly in contact with water for bathing, swimming , drinking , washing of clothes or kitchen utensils, such that each activity serves as an often daily pathway for acquiring infections( Sam-Wobo et al., 2009; Ekpo et al.,2008) With predictions to colonize the lower pelvic venous system, especially the vesical plexus , eggs of S.haematobium are typically voided in urine and detected by urine microscopy ( Stothard et al,2014).
FGS Isa manifestation mainly of schistosoma haematobium infection. Given the nature of the signs and symptoms of FGS, women tend to approach health services with complaints of infertility or symptoms of sexually transmitted infection. Clinicians are generally unaware of FGS because it is not described in the medical textbooks of nursing curriculum of any country. Laboratory diagnosis are inadequate consequently, for women of reproductive age living in areas endemic for S. haematobium, FGS remains highly prevalent and under- diagnosed due to low index of suspicion among health-care professionals. A high index of operativity and avoid unnecessary radical and misdiagnosis of sexually transmitted infection ( WHO,2015)
Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between production of free radicals and antioxidants system which is in charge of keeping the homeostasis of the organization .It not only causes hazardous events such as lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage, but also physiological adaptation phenomena and regulation in intracellular signal transduction from a clinical standpoint, if biomarkers that reflects the extent of oxidative stress were available, such markers would be useful for physicians to gain an insight into the pathological features of various disease in and assess the efficacy of drugs. (JMAJ, 2009)
Oxidative stress .a consequence of increased activity of muscle and of other tissues is a topic of high relevance of sports medicine and to the study of exercise in hypoxia.The influence of oxidative stress on the ion flux activity of calcium – activated potassium channel on nerve and muscle ( Brietenbach et al. , 2015)
- I) Brief History
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma and belongs to the neglected tropical diseases. The disease has been reported in 78 countries, with around 290.8 million people in need of treatment in 2018. Schistosomiasis is predominantly considered a rural disease with a subsequent focus of research and control activities in rural settings. Over the past decades, occurrence and even expansion of schistosomiasis foci in peri-urban and urban settings have increasingly been observed. Rural–urban migration in low- and middle-income countries and subsequent rapid and unplanned urbanization are thought to explain these observations. Fifty-five percent (55%) of the world population is already estimated to live in urban areas, with a projected increase to 68% by 2050. In light of rapid urbanization and the efforts to control morbidity and ultimately achieve elimination of schistosomiasis, it is important to deepen our understanding of the occurreonce, prevalence, and transmission of schistosomiasis in urban and peri-urban settings. A systematic literature review looking at urban and peri-urban schistosomiasis was therefore carried out as a first step to address the research and mapping.( Katharina klohe et al .,2021)
Schistosoma haematobium is a trematode of the genus Schistosoma. It belongs to the trematode order Diplostomida in the subclass Digenea. It is a parasitic flatworm (commonly known as a blood fluke) that parasitizes the venous plexus of the bladder and other urogenital organs. The lifecycle is complex and involves an intermediate host, primarily freshwater snails belonging to the genus Bulinus, and primary host, typically a human. Distribution of schistosomiasis is defined by the specific host snail species habitat range.(Gryseels B, 2006)
It is well documented that schistosomiasis haematobium was endemic in Magba. Infection was diagnosed in mummies 3000, 4000 and 5000 years. Schistosomiasis haematobium was highly prevalent (60%) in Magba.. Schistosoma mansoni infected 60% of the population in the Northern and Eastern parts of the Magba and only 6% in the Southern part. Neither S. mansoni cases nor its snail intermediate host were found in the South of Magba.. In lthe past, study conducted in Magba confirmed the change in the pattern of schistosomiasis transmission in the Delta. There was an overall reduction in S. mansoni prevalence while Schistosoma haematobium had continued to disappear. In Middle and Upper parts of Magba there was consistent reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium . All schistosomiasis control projects implemented in Magba adopted the strategy of transmission control and were based mainly on snail control supplemented by anti-bilharzial chemotherapy. Later on the National Schistosomiasis Contry the survey, in the whole department prevalence >3% .( Rashida, 2013).
- IV) Infection and transmission
People become infected when larval forms of the parasite – released by freshwater snails – penetrate the skin during contact with infested water. Transmission occurs when people suffering from schistosomiasis contaminate freshwater sources with their excreta containing parasite eggs, which hatch in water. In the body, the larvae develop into adult schistosomes. Adult worms live in the blood vessels where the females release eggs. Some of the eggs are passed out of the body in the faeces or urine to continue the parasite’s lifecycle. Others become trapped in body tissues, causing immune reactions and progressive damage to organs. (WHO,2022)