Parental orientation and its impact on students discipline
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This work titled ‘Parental orientation and its impact on students discipline’ was carried out in some selected schools in the Molyko BUEA. The study generally was aimed at examining the role of parental nurture, parental involvement, parental counseling and home environment on students’ discipline. The descriptive exploratory survey research design was adopted for the study. The instrument used in the research was a structured self-built questionnaire for students, questionnaires for parents and an interview guide for guidance counselors and discipline masters. The questionnaire was made up of both closed-ended and open-ended questions to collect quantitative and qualitative data from selected participants. The close-ended items were prepared using a four-option Likert scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD), with 60 student participants; 5 each for parents and guidance counselors respectively. Pearson Product Movement Correlational Analysis was used to verify the research hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that there is a significance relationship between parental Nurture and students’ discipline (Гxy = 0.361) meaning that the higher the parental nurture, the better the students’ dicipline. Findings also revealed that there is a significant relationship between involvement in students’ education and students’ discipline (Гxy = 0.298) meaning that the better parental Involvement in student education, the better the students’ discipline. Findings equally revealed that there is a significant relationship between parental counselling and students discipline (Гxy = 0.320) implying that the better the parental counselling, the better the students’ discipline. Findings further unveiled that there is a significant relationship between home environment and students’ discipline .meaning that the better the home environment, the better the students’ discipline. The findings therefore revealed that there is a significant relationship between parental orientation and students’ discipline. It was therefore recommended that parents, teachers and counsellors should work hand in hand to address the issue of indiscipline in school and help students get rid of problems. Suggestions were made such as carrying this same topic in different area with an increase population or using other variables such as peer influence, parental neglect, school environment and mass media. Key words like discipline, orientation, parental nurture supervision and control was use to accomplish this study.
“Student’s disciplinary problems are in the rise in scope and intensity. They are one of the most serious problems schools and educational authorities are facing today. A close look at our school institutions today reveals that indiscipline is very rampant among secondary school students. Many of them exhibit maladaptive behaviours due to ignorance” (Idowu, 1986, p.6). Others misbehave voluntarily knowing that they are putting themselves and others at rick.
Different acts of student’s indiscipline have been observed among secondary school students. They comprise truancy, bullying, prostitution, abortion, boycotting of classes, disrespect of teacher and school administrators, aggressive acts against teachers and students, gang affiliation, sexual harassment, rape, drug abuse, lying, stealing, and damaging school furniture and many others. These constitute a major impediment to the learning process and the educational system as a whole. They are liable to disrupt school activities and even make other students and teacher fear school and also cause harm to them physically and psychologically. Thus, indiscipline appears to be an obstacle to the attainment of educational aims stated by the government of Cameroon. It is viewed as a hindrance to the efforts made by the government to make school environments a place where students learn and socialize. Therefore, solutions must be found in order to efficiently curb student’s discipline. Some solutions may be found through examining the role of parental orientation.
Among the underlying causes of student’s behaviour in school, the home environment has been found to be one source of student’s behavioural problems. Most of the parents may not have control over their children because many parents nowadays are too busy in their work to involve with their children and give them proper guidance, nurture or counseling. As a result, when teachers are asked what they think are the main causes of indiscipline in schools, they often think about poor parental orientation. This study therefore, seeks to take a closer look at parental orientation in order to determine how it can influence students’ discipline. This chapter consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, and hypotheses, justification of study, significance of the present study, delimitation and scope of the study and operational definition of key terms.
1.2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY (CHILD DEVELOPMENT)
“Guidance is a process, developmental in nature, by which an individual is assisted to understand, accept and utilize his abilities, aptitude, interests and attitudinal patterns in relation to his aspiration” (Zera n & Ricccio, 1962). On the other hand, “counseling is the process in which one person assists another person in a person-to-person or face-to-face encounter, which can take many forms. It may be educational, vocational, social, recreational, emotional and or moral” (Olayinka, 1972). Guidance and counseling means to direct, pilot, manage, steer, aid, assist, lead and interact; while counseling can be seen as the process by which a person with problems is helped by a professional counselor to voluntarily change his behavior, clarify his attitude, ideas and goals so that his problems may be solved.
Historically, the concept of guidance is as old as man. Whenever two persons, two friends, husband and wife or parents and children live in close proximity, there is need for guidance. Parent always advice their children who are unable to make crucial decisions. The more important the decision making, the more youth and elders seek advice from other elders and experts who are more experienced or more knowledgeable in solving critical problems. Elders guide according to their rich experience in life. In matters affecting inter-personal relationship or group conflicts the head of the family or the local chief may intervene. Similarly religious sect has its accredited counselors, we have seen the role a chief priest might play within the traditional religion. The traditional mode of guidance is part of our cultural heritage, for as long as people have their belief in the efficacy of prayers and what religious priest and elders can offer in terms of guidance. Traditional guidance will persist (Olayinka M.S.1993).
The evolution of guidance counseling as in the 19th century was limited in schools but this concept evolved due to the Industrial Revolution as many schools now made use of the services of guidance counselors, there were no guidance and counseling services in secondary schools. During the 19th century, there was limited counseling in schools, as some teachers used part of their time during teaching to give students vocational guidance. A section of training of counselors was established within the Department of Science of Education in the “Ecole Normale Supérieure” Yaounde in 1982 by a Degree No79/309 of August, 1979. Today many more counseling programs have been introduced in other state universities in the country.
Guidance and counseling, as a profession, is as old as humanity itself and according to the opinion of Herr & Cramer (1972) “any analysis of the evolution of current guidance and counseling services would be incomplete without recognition of the initial stimulus and the continuing persuasive influence of early efforts to provide vocational guidance”. The history of school counseling around the world was greatly based on how different countries and local communities decided to provide discipline, academic, career, and personal or social skills and competencies to children and their families based on economic and social capital resources.
The guidance movement began with an emphasis on vocational information, planning, guidance and the maintenances of discipline. Vocational planning was regarded as a process for helping students who are indiscipline in the community to develop and accept an integrated and adequate picture of themselves, and of their roles in the world of work, to test concept against reality, and to accept its benefits with satisfaction (Herr & Cramer, 1972). They added that, Frank Parsons is accepted as the father of the guidance movement. From this movement there emerged the idea of a particular specialist called a counselor.
1.3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Recently it has been observed that students gradually withdraw from school activities, and in some cases participate in disruptive behaviour such as drinking alcohol, smoking tobacco, gambling in school during school hours. Some students display negative attitudes towards teachers and other students in forms of insult, bullying, fighting, and even killing them. An example of such an incident happened in Yaounde in 2020 where a form four student of GHS Nkolbisson stabbed his mathematics’ teacher by name Tchakounte to death. These students who are disaffected from school tend to create one of the biggest challenges for parents, teachers and school administrators. This study therefore seeks to find out how parental orientations can help improve on students’ behaviour in secondary schools in the Buea Municipality.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions have been asked to seek for answers to the study.
1.4.1 .General Research Question
How does parental orientation of children influence their children behaviour at school?
1.4.2. Specific Research Questions
Specifically, the following questions have been framed to guide the research.
To what extent does parental nurture influence students’ behaviour in secondary schools?
In what ways does parental involvement in students’ education influence students’ behaviour in secondary schools?
How does the quality of parental counseling influence students’ behaviour in schools?
How does the home environment influence students’ behaviour in secondary schools?
1.5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.5.1. General Objective
This study is aimed generally at examining the role of parental nurture, counseling, involvement in children’s education and home environment on students’ behaviour in secondary schools in the Buea Municipality.
1.5.2. Specific Research Objectives
Specifically, the researcher seeks to;
Evaluate the extent to which parental nurture influence students’ behaviour.
Investigate how parental involvement in students’ education influences their behaviour.
Determine the extent to which the quality of parent counseling influence students behaviour.
Examine how home environment can influence students behaviour.