Parenting styles and the effects on students' academic performance in BUEA-SUB DIVISION South Western Region of Cameroon
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The present study was intended to find out the impact of Parenting Styles on Student’s Academic Performance. Specific objectives were to examine how authoritative parenting style influences the academic performances of students, how authoritarian parenting style affects the academic performances of students, the effect of uninvolved parenting style on students’ academic performance, the influences of permissive parenting style on students’ academic performance and how eclectic or democratic parenting style affects the academic performances of students.
The study adopted a correlation research design. Questionnaires to measure the impact of Parenting Styles on students’ academic Performance, were administered to 60 students of the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Arts of the University of Buea, they were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The descriptive analysis in particular frequencies, percentages, averages, and pie charts was used to analyze the data.
The findings of the study indicated that: Authoritative parenting style significantly affects the academic performances of students. Authoritarian parenting style greatly affects the academic performances of students. Permissive parenting style influences students’ academic performance.
Democratic parenting style affects the academic performances of students. The researcher design used is the sample survey design. Based on this finding, some recommendations were made to counselors, teachers, and parents to encouraged students to do their best, work hard and study for the purpose of understanding the subject matter, learning and practicing good study skills and test-taking strategies in their academic process which will help them enhances their academic achievement.
This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and delimitations of the study, operational definition of terms, and summary
1.1 Background Of The Study
Education is a major component of the social pillar of the economy. The issues of parenting styles have been highlighted as a major component of academic achievement amongst adolescence which makes up the secondary school population.
Baumrind Diana (2012) in her research found out there are four basic elements that could help to sharpen successful parenting. That is responsiveness and demandingness / undemanding. This is because there is a belief that each parent set its own demand with respect to the conducts of learners and standard that they have to meet.
It is generally agreed that parenting styles influences self-efficiency, self-esteem, identity development, and especially student academic performances. According to James (2014), the progress of students’ academic achievement is influenced by the decision that is made by their parents
Education has been highlighted as one of the main millennium development goals that African countries need to achieve and Cameroon in particular. Educational factors have been pointed out as an instrument for the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, promote gender equality, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health and ensure environmental health and sustainability.
Parenting style is defined as the emotional climate in which parents raise their children and it is characterized by dimensions of parental responsiveness and demandingness. According to Steinberg and Darling (1993), a parenting style is a psychological Contract representing standard strategies that parents use in child-rearing. The quality of parenting is far more essential than the quality of time spent with the child. For example, a parent may have spent the whole afternoon with the child but engaging his/herself in different activities and paying less attention to the child can affect the child positively or negatively.
Parents play a highly influential role in their children’s development. Baumrind (2012) in his study identified that pre-school children raised by parents with different parenting styles varied in their degree of cognitive and social competencies. Parenting styles can be categorized according to the levels of parents’ demand that is control, supervision, and maturity.
Amy Morin Lesw (2016) presents Parenting styles in five categories which are, Authoritarian, authoritative, uninvolved parenting, and permissive parenting styles. To her, the Authoritarian parenting style is where parents established the rules and expect that children will follow them without exception. Children have little to no involvement in problem-solving challenges or obstacles. Instead, parents expect that children will follow all the rules all the time.
Authoritative parents on the other hand allow some exceptions to the rules. They often tell children the reasons for the rules and they are more willing to consider a Child’s feelings when setting limits. Authoritative parents tend to used consequences instead of punishments, they also used more positive consequences to reinforced good behaviors and may be more willing than authoritarian parents to use a reward system and praise.
Also according to Lesw (2016), uninvolved parents tend to be neglectful. They often do not meet their children’s basic needs and they expect the children to raise themselves. Sometimes this is due to a parent’s mental health issues or substance abused problems. That parent may also lack knowledge about parenting and child development or May feel overwhelmed by life’s other problems. The uninvolved parents tend to have little knowledge about their children doing. There to be few, if any rules or expectations.
Children may not receive any nurturing or guidance and they lack the need for parental attention. When parents are uninvolved, children tend to lack self-esteem and they perform poorly academically. They also exhibit frequent behavior problems and rank low in happiness
While permissive parents tend to offer as much freedom as the child wants not demanding any form of conformity as long as the child physically safely is not at risk. She researched and came up with the result that children are immature absent in impulsive control because of permissive parenting.
Eclectic parenting styles according to Kassahan (2005), there is a significant relationship between authoritative parenting styles and academic performance of students because of a high proportion put on physical punishment, parents and teachers often use corporal punishment and by so doing they confuse discipline and punishment but however, the minister of education realized that corporal punishment does not instill discipline and therefore they abolished it from the school system.
According to legislative law of Act 1975 requires it to regard the best interest of the child as the most important consideration: both parents are responsible for the care and welfare of their children until the children reach 18 and above, there is a presumption that arrangements which involved shared responsibilities and cooperation between the parents are in the best interests of the child.
Historically, the concept of parenting style began late 1800 infant care and child psychology become subjects of scientific interest. The great industrial revolution of 1800 can be seen as a two-edged sword. On one hand, the industrial revolution represented optimism and hope for the future in terms of great advances in technology, agriculture and general economic growth.
On the other hand, it was not necessarily a great improvement for children and their living conditions. With the industrial revolution, child labor becomes more visible than ever before. In 1833 and 1844, the first English laws were made to reduce child labor (however in 1900 there were still 1.7 million child laborers in America).
In spite of this high number, one may view the late 1800s as representing the birth of children’s rights. In 1887 the American pediatric society saw the light of day. Society was established information on various infants’ issues and the parent-child relationships.
In 1897 parent-teacher association (PTA) was founded as a group of spokesmen for children and their health and safety. From 1920 onwards, scientific information on child care and health started to become general public knowledge, rather than just following tradition or family customs. Mothers were increasingly influenced by the strong voice of science.
Theoretically, parenting style has been looking by some theorists like; the social learning theory of Albert Bandura, Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation, the model of human ecology by Bronfenbrenner, and the parenting styles theory.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A person’s upbringing has a profound influence on how they see the world and how they process information. Also, a student’s (child) education depends on what he/she brings to the classroom. Sclafani (2004) says what children bring to the classroom depends on what their parents choose to provide at home.
Therefore, parents are known as their children’s first teachers and are responsible for laying the foundation of their children’s future in education. Most parents aspire for their children to achieve great accomplishments in school. However, not all students reach great success. Thus this study aims at investigating the extent to which parenting style affects students’ performance.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General objective of the study
The objective of this study is; to examine how parenting styles affect students’ academic performances in the Buea sub-division.
1.3.2 Specific objectives of the study
Specifically, the study seeks:
To examine how authoritative parenting style influences the academic performances of students.
To find out how authoritarian parenting style affects the academic performances of students.
To investigate the effect of uninvolved parenting style on students’ academic performance.
To assess the influences of permissive parenting style on students’ academic performance.
To find out how eclectic or democratic parenting style affects the academic performances of students.
1.4 Research Questions
1.4.1 General research question
How parenting styles does affect students’ academic performances?
1.4.2 Specific Research Questions
To what extent does authoritative parenting influences the academic performances of students?
How authoritarian parenting style affects the academic performances of students?
To investigate the effect of uninvolved parenting style on students’ academic performances of students?
To assess the influences of permissive/Laissez Faire parenting style on students’ academic performances?
To find out how eclectic or democratic parenting style affects the academic performances of students?