PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF HONEY AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM READY TO EAT FOOD IN THE MOLYKO COMMUNITY
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Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal colonizing about 30 per cent of the population. Besides, it is a frequent cause of infections such as skin, wound and deep tissue infections and also more life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis and septicaemia.S. aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and an increase in antibiotic resistance, especially against methicillin, is seen. This study was an experimental cross sectional study aimed at investigating the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of honey on Staphylococcus aureus on Ready to eat food in the Molyko comminity.
The food samples sample were gotten from road side vendors in the Molyko community. A total of 50 samples were collected for this study from food vendors in the Molyko community. The food samples were taken to the Redemption Medical Laboratory for laboratory assessment, and the data obtained was analyzed using Microsoft excel 2016.
the results obtained showed that the prevalence of S.aureus in this study was 80% by phenotypic characterization. The highest prevalence was seen in cucumber (40.9%). these isolate were subjected to honey and it was observed that honey was inhibited the isolates at different concentrations.The highest inhibition was observed in the 100% dilution (pure honey). it was therefore concluded that pure is effective against S. aureus and can be used to treat infections caused by this microorganism.
We therefore recommend that road side vendors should strictly practice hygiene when handling food so as to reduce the spread of S aureus infection in the community.Furthermore, the Ministry public health should train Health personnel on the activities of natural product for the treatment of diseases.
More education should be given to the community on the practice of hygiene so as the reduce the spread of bacterial infection.
S aureus was discovered in 1880 by the surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston. He observed grape-like clusters of bacteria when examining a purulent discharge from patients with post-operative wounds during microscopy. He named them staphylé, the Greek expression for a bunch of grapes. In 1884, Friedrich Rosenbach succeeded in isolating yellow bacterial colonies from abscesses and named them Staphylococcus aureus, “aureus” from the Latin word for golden.Fifty-two samples in total were used for the study ( Lisa stark 2013).
Staphylococcus aureus belongs to the family Staphylococcaceae and is part of the genus Staphylococcus, which contains more than 30 species.
Those of medical importance are S. aureus S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Among the staphylococcal species, S. aureus is by far the most virulent and pathogenic for humans ( Lisa stark 2013).S aureus causes a wide range of infections from a variety of skin, wound and deep tissue infections to more life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, septic arthritis and septicemia, nosocomial infections, food poisoning, scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome, through production of different toxins (Winn Washington 2010).It is characterized as coagulase- and catalase positive.
At first, penicillin was used to treat S. aureus infections. Soon afterwards, resistance emerged when strains acquired a genetic element coding for β-lactamase production, and today over 80 % of all S. aureus strains are resistant to penicillins. The next drug to be introduced for treating infections with S. aureus was the semisynthetic, penicillinase-resistant penicillin named oxacillin or methicillin, but shortly after its introduction the first isolate of MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was detected (Winn Washington 2010).With the emergence of resistance to the penicillinase-resistant penicillins, the glucopeptide agent vancomycin became the treatment of choice for infections with MRSA, and in 1996 the first isolate with intermediate vancomycin resistance was detected in Japan.
In a recent European study, great variation in the nasal carriage rates was found, the lowest in Hungary (12 %) and the highest (29 %) in Sweden (den Heijer et al., 2013). In a Norwegian study, the same rate (29 %) in Norway as in the general Swedish population has been reported (Olsen et al., 2013). In Cameroon precisely Buea, Some Ready to eat foods (RTE) have been reported to carry antibiotic resistant enterococci ( Chajęcka-Wierzchowska et al.,2016), antibiotics staphylococcus species (Zadernowska et al.,2014) and other bacterial specie (Giri et al.,2021). Unfortunately, the presence of antibiotic resistant bacterial in RTE food is not routinely investigates in low and middle income countries and data are only available from small number of studies(Ahmed MY et al.,2021).Hence, this study was carried out to investigate, determine the prevalence, and characteristics of S aureus isolated from commonly consumed RTE food samples collected in Buea, South West Cameroon.
Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major public health concern worldwide, in both industrialized and developing countries, it has contributed to an increase economic burden on the health system despite the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Antimicrobial resistance is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity (WHO, 2021). The aim and objective of this research is focused on investigating the antibacterial activity of Honey on S aureus.
Honey is a nutrition-rich food consumed by humans all over the world. Besides, the medicinal properties of honey have been known since ancient times.
Honey has been used in folkloric medicine in different cultures throughout human history.The use of honey as a drug for the treatment of disease dates back to 2100-2000 BC. For instance, pale honey was described by Aristotle (384-322 BC) as being “good for sore eyes and wounds” (Mandal and Mandal, 2011, Vallianou et al., 2014). The antimicrobial properties of honey have been well documented, and honey has been used from ancient times as a method of accelerating wound healing. Its potential to assist wound healing has been demonstrated repeatedly ( Vallianou et al.,2014).Honey is composed of approximately 82.4% total carbohydrates (38.5% fructose, 31.0% glucose and 12.9% from carbohydrates consisting of maltose, sucrose and other sugars) ( Vallianou et al., 2014). Honey is produced from different sources, and its antimicrobial activity varies significantly with origin .
The antibacterial activity of honey has been attributed by physical factors such as osmolarity, acidity and chemical factors reported that commercial honey had antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.(Anima Shrestha et al., 2020).The natural ingredients of honey is said to show different activities against various microorganisms. Its activity is likely to be dependent on the grazing grounds and the weather conditions where the bees were raised, and on the natural structure of the blossom nectar (Steve harakeh, 2017). A possible reason behind its activity relies on its ability to generate hydrogen peroxide by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase (Saleh et al., 2011, Jing et al., 2014). Another possibility is the composition of honey, which has more than 181 constituents (Mandal and Mandal, 2011, Vallianou et al., 2014).
Honey has an increasing effect on the levels of anti-oxidants, iron and rare elements in blood (Steve harakeh, 2017).(Steve harakeh, 2017) showed that honey had a more pronounced inhibitory effect (85.7%) on Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella) in comparison to commonly used antimicrobial agents. A 100% inhibition was observed in the case of Gram positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in comparison to the use of antibiotics alone.
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