Population Growth and Farm Produces, in Limbe South West Region of Cameroon
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This research strives to examine impacts of population growth demand on food production trend in Limbe, South West Region of Cameroon.
The problem of population growth demand and food production trend in Limbe is that it has brought about increase population growth with a lower rate of food production.
The main objective of this research is to examine the impact of population growth demand on food production trend in Limbe.
The data of the research is obtained through the use of the field work observation and photographs, questionnaires, direct interview and the collection of secondary data from the internet and textbooks consulted from the University of Buea Library.
The data gotten was analyzed using the ANOVA method bases on the facts gotten from the field. The results revealed various roles of food production in Limbe.
This research also had some effects of population growth demand on food production trend in Limbe which were positive and negative and the positive aspects were; increase of labour force in the agricultural sector, increase in the level of income and standard of living of farmers, increase population which has created a large market size, while the negative effects are; deforestation, reduction in agricultural land,loss of the natural vegetation and land tenue system.
This studies recommended that agricultural farmers should cultivate their crops in relation to population growth and farmers are requested to initiate agricultural groups supported by the development agencies and also the practice of land segmentation.
The government should intervene through agro pastoral commission in Limbe Municipality which is charged with the distribution of land and resolution of conflicts and also high yielding resistant crops and animals should be made available to farmers, farm to market roads should be constructed and the government should implement birth control law(s) in Limbe conditions.
Agricultural fertilizes have been unfairly blamed for soil nutrients losses. Because of the age structures of the population, the expected population growth can only be addressed through development of higher yields, new strains resistant diseases, and fertilizers.
Slow release phosphates for tropical soils are needed. Shortage of domestic fuel divert much needed farm yard manure and composted crop residues. Imbalance between food supply and population need to be address on an effective international scale.
Population growth can be defined as the increase in the number of individuals in a population. Food production can be defined as the growth of animals and plants materials, and subsequently cropping for human consumption. Global human population increases at a rate of about 1.1% annual making a total of 8 million people .
Agricultural products play a major role in sustaining the population of Limbe. Agricultural crops such as cassava, potatoes, cocoyams, and plantains. This chapter examines the background of the study, problem statememnt, research questions and research objectives, research hypothesis, the area of study (Limbe), and the significance and limitation of the study, scope and the absumption of the study.
Scholars have proposed food insecurity as one of the treads that societies unite during centuries. However, global food production is incredible efficient. The world’s farmers produce enough food to feed 1.5x persons. Despite this excess, hunger still exists. Food production on cropland and water supply which are under strain as human population increases: pressure on limited land increase, driven in part by population growth can mean explanation of croplands. This often destruction of vital forest or resource or over exploitation of arable lands.The sustainable intensification of agricultural production lifting food production in underutilized regions, reducing food wastage and adaptation ofnew technologies. Therefore 45%of the world population relies of agriculture for their livelihood, which can give a roughly estimation of 2million.(CIA World Fact Book 2009: Population Growth and its impacts United Nation Population Department, USA)
Africa’s total population is estimated at more than 1.341 billion with a growth of 2.5% per annual. The fertility rate for sub-Sahara Africa is 4.7. This highest according toWorld Bank. Population growth will greatly increase the amount of food need to adequately feed its population, consequently, the reproduction rate and choice of today’s youth will greatly influence its total population size and food productivity in this regions. ( Devereux S and Maxwell. S, 2013).
Furthermore, in Cameroon; the main agricultural productionincludesplantations, (banana), maize, fresh vegetables, and groundnut. Cameroon primary exports crops are cocoa, cotton, coffee and banana rubber and palm oil with its main export partner EuropeanUnion. Agriculturecontribute to about 44% of the GDP as a principal occupation of 55% of the economically active population of 26.88million and 0.34% of the world population (P.K .Joshua Kandem,(2010):20th Century population Explosion, 45, 90-115) The density of 56per km2 (145persons per mi2) with 472710km2 land area. 56.3% urban population index of Cameroon increase from 19.9 indexed to 103.5, growing at an average annual rate of 3.50%. (Brian Musa Edwin, 2000)
Traditional systems of agriculture perhaps the most important difference between the categories is the way farmers see themselves and their roles. Traditional farmers, for example, often say that they seek to work effectively with resources at hand. That is, they use the land, rainfall,seeds, tillage methods that have to produce what nature offers. Conventionalprocess is used to till the land, select and plant seeds, protects plants from competing plants and animals and gathers the harvest. Surpluses are marketed through nearby outlets. Such producers frequently report only limited capacity to change these processes and some seek to avoid change. Isolation inherent in traditional arrangements, modern agriculture tends to see its success as dependent on linkages access to resources, technology, management, investment, markets and supportive government policies.(TA Tollem and Sons, 2016).
Going by FAO, (2001), agricultural activities remain the livelihood of about three-quarter of the world’s population. This is greatly significant in the developing countries where it employs most of its population as against the developed world. The prices of farm input are high in developing nation while the prices of farm product are low. (Point to not is that, the develop nations passes through the present Stages), Cameroon with Limbe inclusive is not deference from other developing nations all the stages that the developing nation are passing through to attain modern farming system. There implications of population growth on food Crops production but the Impacts defer with regard to other areas in developing nation with Limbe-Cameroon inclusive. (F.A.O:2001)
The continuous struggle by the inhabitants to feed their families and to cope with the continuous unavailability of food stuff at very high prices, pose a serious problem to the city and village dwellers of Limbe.
Rapid population increase and land scarcity have posed serious food crisis for the population. It is spreading at a very fast rate to all the other regions that depend on Limbe’s supply of their food stuffs.
This has been as a major result of the continuous conversion of agricultural land to residential land due to the rapid invasion of this place by migrants from other part of the country and out of the country.
This has created conflict among chiefs, elites and local buyers. As a result, to all these, farmers who depended solely on agriculture to feed their families are forced to go elsewhere to seek other and better means of livelihood. This has greatly reduced agricultural outputs.
The parcels of land left are on hilly inaccessible areas and it becomes impossible to farm on them. The very big question is, “how can an ever increasing population cope without a corresponding match on its food production, supply and availability;
The research questions of this study are divided in main and specific, these questions will help to remedy the problems of the study area.
What is the impact of population growth demand on food production trend?
- How has food production been done in Limbe?
- What arethe trend of population growth demand and on food production in Limbe?
The objectives of this study are divided in main and specifics..
To examine the impact ofpopulation growth demand and food crops production trend in Limbe
- To analyze the trend of food production in Limbe
- To characterize the trend of population growth demand and food production.
- To propose solutions to improve the trend of food production to meet up the population growth demand.