PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN
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Background: Anaemia during pregnancy is commonly associated with poor pregnancy outcome and can result in complications that threaten the life of both mother and foetus. World Health Organisation defined anaemia in pregnancy as haemoglobin level less than 10.5g/dl. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending the Buea Regional Hospital.
Method: A cross sectional study was carried in which files of 273 pregnant women was obtain, in this hospital based retrospective study medical record or files of pregnant women attending the Antenatal unit (ANC) of Buea regional hospital from which haemoglobin level for each trimester of pregnancy, the age, the occupation, the marital status was obtain and analysing starting from June 2019 to March 2020.
Results: This study enrolled 273 participant from which it was found that 173(63%) where married and 99(36.3) were single, 85(31.1%) were student, 97(35%) had self-employed jobs, 51(18.7%) were employed and 40(14.7%) were unemployed. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in the first trimester is 27.1% which increased in the second trimester to 38.1% and drop in the third trimester to 26%, giving and average prevalence of 30.4%. From the study it was found that the age range 21-25 had the highest prevalence in all the semester.
Conclusion: A decrease in prevalence from 49.93% in 2016 to 30.4% in 2020.
1.1 Background of the Study
Anaemia among pregnant women is a public health problem in developing countries as well as developed countries . Anaemia during pregnancy is commonly associated with poor pregnancy outcome and can result in complications that threaten the life of both mother and foetus. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has defined anaemia in pregnancy as haemoglobin level less than 11g/dl. It also states that anaemia is considered to be of public health significance if studies find the prevalence of anaemia to be 5.0% higher or above . When it is greater than 40% in the population, it is considered to be a severe public health problem. Global data shows that 56% of pregnant women in low and middle income countries suffer from anaemia .
The causes of anaemia during pregnancy in developing countries are multifactorial; some of which are micronutrient deficiencies of iron, folate, and vitamin A and B12 and anaemia. It should be noted that causes vary according to geographical location, diet and season. For instance inadequate intake of diets rich in iron is reported as the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women Sub-Saharan Africa .
Anaemia during pregnancy is reported to have negative effects on maternal and child health. Many studies show that it contributes to a good number of indirect causes of maternal deaths in developing countries .
1.2 Problem Statement
Anaemia is the world’s second leading cause of disability and thus among the most serious global health issues. More over in malaria endemic countries such as Cameroon, anaemia is one of the regularly encountered preventable causes of death in children under 5 years in addition to pregnant women. .
Previous studies on the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Cameroon have been reported at 49.3% according to the World Bank Collection of development indicators . While advances in treatment strategies and pharmacotherapy have produced a dramatic reduction in the mortality of patients with anaemia, no recent study has been conducted to evaluate the changes in its prevalence .
Reducing the burden of anaemia will be a major contribution in achieving one of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Since the greatest burden of anaemia falls on the most ‘hard-to-reach’ individuals, any programme that aims at reducing anaemia or at least making knowledge about it readily accessible is of utmost importance.
Obtaining the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending the Buea Regional Hospital in the year 2020 will enable the evaluation of the changes experienced over the years and the finding of ways through which the outcome could be improved .
1.4 Research Questions
To what extend has the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women change over time?
- What are the factors that are responsible for changes in the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women?
- What are the remedies against anaemia in pregnancy?
FURTHER READING: HEALTH SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS WITH MATERIALS