AN EVALUATION OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE KUPE-MUANENGUBA TWIN LAKES
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Transport is a fundamental requirement for tourism to occur. It is a pivotal element which connects the tourists with the destination. Road transport is affecting the rate of tourists visiting the Twin Lakes and tourism development in Kupe Muanenguba Division since the roads are characterized with poor drainage systems, a lot of potholes, standing water which causes frequent accidents along the road especially during the rainy season. These elements go a long way to scare away tourist from visiting the Muanenguba Twin Lakes. The study therefore aims at evaluating the different modes of road transports and their effects on tourism development in Kupe Muanenguba Division. Using the sample survey, primary data collection instruments included interview guides for management staff and questionnaires for tourists and inhabitants around the lakes as well as observations. Secondary data was collected from the review of published books, internet sources including published articles. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. Findings reveal there is an inverse relation between the poor state of the road leading to the twin lakes and tourists desire to visit and that the lack of different transportation modes is a dominant problem plaguing the number of tourists visiting the lake. However, as a mitigation strategy, the tourism management staff of Kupe Muanenguba twin lakes are recommended to establish good drainage systems, build culverts, fill potholes, and carry out road maintenances frequently to reduce the rate of accidents
This opening chapter of the work presents the structure of the work in five chapters. Chapter one traces the origin and successive development of road transport from a global to regional perspectives. It equally state the problems, questions, objectives and hypothesis of the study. The chapter also defines the scope, explains the significances and closes with definition of terms.
Chapter two will focus on the literature review, both conceptual and theoretical review as well as empirical reviews of secondary data including the research gaps. Chapter three presents the research methodology, chapter looks at the presentation of findings while chapter five elucidates as the concluding chapter which presents the discussion, conclusion and recommendations.
1.2 Background of the Study
Transport is a fundamental requirement for tourism to occur. It is the pivotal element which connects the tourist with the destination, unifying the origin-destination element and thereby it is a dynamic element in the tourist system (Page & Connell, 20014). The movement of early travelers from origin to destination was made possible by well-engineered road systems, organized road transport, based on horse and cart teams, and organized sea travel in the Mediterranean and a hospitality sector (Prideaux, 2000). In more recent times the development of the steam train followed later by the car and plane have added to humanities ability to undertake travel to even the remote corner of the globe (page & Connell, 2014).
The demand for transport services stimulates the growth of transportation offers, which can be seen in the increase of the number and quality of means of transport. The decision which means of transport to choose is determined not only by the need of reaching the require destination but also the quality level and attractiveness of the service the means offers (Gireczak, 2011). The impact of transportation on the environment and society is increasing because of improved transport systems. Transportation in the European Union (EU) increased during the period 1995-2004. Road transport grew by 35%, Rail transport by 6% and inland navigation by 3% (European Commission, 2006). Due to the characteristics of tourism activities at the destination (long-distance travel, remote areas, difficult routes) and personal constrains, (health and physical disabilities and security concern) tourists are dependent upon the transportation system available at the destination or attractions such as lakes, mountains.
Road transportation and travel cannot be discussed without taking tourism and tourist destinations into consideration but tourism cannot thrive without travel as transportation is an integral part of the tourism industry (Anjali & Prita 2018). Transportation links the various destinations and ferries people, goods and services. Tourism is all about travel and their role of transportation is vital. It is largely due to the improvement of transportation that tourism has expanded. The advent of flight has shrunk the world, and the motto vehicle has made travel to anywhere possible. This reality coupled with changing work patterns, and innovative marketing has driven international mass tourism through the years (Sorupia, 2005). Culpan 1987 cited in Sorupia (2005) identified transportation modes and management as important ingredients of international tourism system, acknowledging that linkage of inland transport (Land, Rail, Sea) as essential or the operation as well as the availability of support service such as fuel station, auto repairs motels and rest facilities for land travel.
Accessibility and tourism activities have broken barriers as opened formally off-the-beaten-track areas to visitors through aggressive marketing of some far-off paradise with the availability of transport. Transportation in tourism is most often seen as just part of the tourism which is in charge of bringing the tourist to the destination and leaving it ones the duration of the trip is over. Lumsdon & Page (2004) contend that, the transportation system of a tourist destination has an impact on the tourism experience which explains how people travel and why they choose different forms of holiday, destination and transports. The improvement in transport modes plus low fares has increased the accessibility of ones off-the-beaten-path. Access to tourism sites vary according to the nature of the site, the state of infrastructure and the efficiency of the public transport system used.
In Africa tourist are particularly sensitive to the modes of transportation that they can use to take them to particular destinations. While studies are being carried out to assess the implication of transport systems on different destination, inland waterway transport was seen as a low cost substitute for road and rail transport systems to destination across Africa where tourism is a significant contributor towards the livelihood security for many (Onokala & Olajide, 2020 ). Extreme temperatures and draughts are critical threat to biodiversity and water levels in Lake Kariba Zimbabwe has reduced the rate at which tourist inland use road transport to visit the lake. Increased incidents of draughts among other factors have led to a reduced travelling rates in the last two decades threatening the tourism business viability in Kariba.
Despite the efforts up to now consented by the authorities to make Cameroon a privileged destination in Africa, tourism is still taking a long time to recover its nobility. If the future of tourism in Cameroon remains uncertain the activity itself remains conditioned by poor means of transport systems in the country. The towns of Yaounde, Douala, Kribi and Limbe which remain good destinations in the country can be affected by the major impact of poor transport phenomena. The increasing traffics, congestion and continuous accidents scare tourist from using their transport systems to visit destinations.
The Twin Lakes of Kupe Muanenguba are a pair of crater lakes on Mount Muanenguba located in Bangem, Kupe Muanenguba division in the South West Region of Cameroon surrounded by rolling hills, lush vegetation and smoky skies, the area’s appealing sacredness is well about in the country and has gained a great deal of popularity with tourist despite the bad nature of the road leading to the lakes
1.3 Problem Statement
Kupe Muanenguba is a division characterized with poor inaccessible road network though it has enormous tourist attractions such the Mount Kupe, Lake Edibe, the Twin Lakes, the Bakossi National Park that attract tourist far and wide. Despite the many influential books being published on tourism since the 1970s, few address in any level of depth this symbiotic relationship or the dependencies which exist between tourism and transport (Page & Connell, 2016). Page and Yue (2016) describe how tourism developed as transportation technology changed and mass tourism became possible in domestic and international context.
The planning and organization of passenger transport in rural areas is a complex process. The transport in rural areas is often low which make it hard to establish and run a financially sustainable public transport system. The absence of a transport industry along the main road leading to the Muanenguba Twin Lakes is also a major constrain coupled with the bad roads. Mostly motorbikes transport visitors to the destination which is equally a main problem as the road is almost inaccessible during the rainy season. Also, the road is characterized by a series of landslides along the Tombel-Bangem road like the recent landslide that occurred on the Nzuke hill in November 2022, blocked the road for a weak. Moreover, the road is characterized with a poor drainage system, a lot of potholes, standing water which causes frequent accidents along the road. This goes a long way to scare away tourists who are willing to visit the lake. Based on the fact that road transport and its effect on the twin lake is still a fresh avenue of study in Kupe Muanenguba division, the current study therefore seeks to evaluate transport and its effect on the Muaneguba Twin Lake with focus on road transport which is the main transport system used to access the study