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Since 2006, almost 60 percent of global protest events have been exclusively driven by economic injustice. Standard determinants of socio-political instability reported in the literature, do not fully explain the eVect of monetary and Wscal policy decisions on the intended target audience of those policy outcomes. We develop an overlapping generation’s monetary endogenous growth model characterized by socio-political instability, to analyse growth dynamics and speciWcally, monetary policy outcomes in the presence of this augmentation. Socio- political instability is speciWed as the fraction of output being lost due to strikes, riots and protests and is positively related to inZation. Interesting, two distinct growth dynamics emerge, one convergent and the other divergent, if socio-political instability is a function of inZation. And by using a sample of 170 countries during the 1980 – 2012 period, and allowing for time and WxedeVects, the results indicate that inZation correlates positively with socio- political instability. Policy makers should be cognisant that it is crucial to maintain long-run price stability, as failure to do so may result in high inZation emanating from excessive money supply growth, and high (er) socio-political instability, and ultimately, the economy being on a divergent balanced growth path.



The indicators that had the largest deteriorations (in the 2021 GPF) were military expenditure (105 countries), weapons import (90 countries), political instability (46 countries) and violent demonstrations (25 countries), ( Like most part of the world, Africa is the continent that faces the most political instability. For example, the cases of Somalia and its poor governance, inter-clan conflict and marginalization, South Sudan and its inter-communal and inter-sectional violence, resulting to killings, displacements, destruction of properties and looting, which is all as a result of the political struggle between Kiir and Machar (since December 2013), Syria and its violent government crackdown on public demonstrations in support of teenagers who were arrested for anti-government graffiti in the southern town of Daara (since march 2011), the DRC and its political instability, resulting from the mid-90s, where the DRC fought the First Congo War. The war involved several armed groups, some of which were formed by the Rwandan Hurtus, who crossed the border following the genocide and as of the case of Cameroon, it is faced with the Anglophone crisis, also known as “the Ambazonian war” or “the Cameroon civil war”, is an ongoing conflict (since October 2016), between Ambazonian militant groups and the Cameroonian government in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the country.

Cameroon which is in the gulf of West and central Africa Has an ethnically diverse population with more than 250 ethnic groups. Like most African countries, Cameroon is still faced by the shadow of socio-political instability. The defeat of the Germans by both Britain and France in 1916, led to the partition of the territory between both parties, resulting to France taking most of the territory and Britain, just a smaller share of it. The British part of the territory was called Southern Cameroon and the French part was called The Republic of Cameroon.Cameroon was a mandated territory of the league of nation, which implies that Britain was just a caretaker and was to be responsible to prepare the territory for independence. The French had complete control over her own part of the territory.

Before the independence era,British Southern Cameroon was given a choice to choose between joining in a federation with the Republic of Cameroon as one equal state or by joining with Nigeria to become a federal states. Their union was in favour of a federation with The Republic of Cameroon. A plebiscite was organized in 1961 which Southern Cameroonians voted to join the Republic of Cameroon as one federal state. On April 21st The United nation resolution 1608 Set 1th of October1961 as they did of independence for the case of Cameroon by joining the Republic of Cameroon forming the Federal Republic of Cameroon. French Cameroon and British former Southern Cameroon met inFoumban to discuss the various terms of their union and at the end of the discussion, the former British southern Cameron went home with a heavy heart, saying the meeting was overpowered by an already drafted constitution from the French experts. This was a turning point in their lives of all former British SouthernCameroonians.

As from 1961 to 1972, the union between British and French Cameroon was quite an inconvenient experience. Southern Cameroon was on their part whenever treated as equal in the union, thus arousing bitterness and hatred in their federal system. Anglophones were not represented enough in terms of administrative appointment in both the federal government and local governing councils. In terms of developmental projects, Southern Cameroon was backward, which thereby had Southern Cameroonians regret the decision of a federal state.

In addition, for several years, the Anglophones have been treated as a second/non important voice as compared to Francophone in a government where marginalization, suppression, the abuse of constitution and the use of force as the main tool in governance by the majority francophones. In the book “Betrayal of two trusting a people” (Anyangwe2009) explains how the desire for self-determination remains alive in the people of Southern Cameroon.

Around early October 2016, the two Anglophone regions formed a riot movement constituted of teachers and lawyers. The people of the Northwest and Southwest took the street in a peaceful protest because they felt that enough was enough and wanted their voices to be heard. Most administrative documents were all in French, creating a complete francophone union (the concept of marginalization). Francophone teachers were posted into Anglophone regions, as most of these teachers could not speak English language neither as their students could understand French, creating an inconvenient atmosphere to study.

Furthermore, the supposed peaceful protest did not turn out to be peaceful as expected, as teachers and lawyers were roughly handled on the streets by military officials. Taxi drivers, bike men and university students all turned against the government, as the streets of both the Northwest and Southwest were full of demonstrators. SouthernCamerooniansunder the leadership of SisikuAyukTabe, with the already interim government on the face of October 2017 declared the independence of Ambazonia. On December 31st2017, the president of the Republic of Cameroon declared war against the Anglophone separatists, which led to the ongoing socio-political instability.

Conclusively, the above paragraphs are to point out the ongoing socio-political instability in both the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon. The peace demonstration that began in 2016 has grown into a fierce battle where the military is being face by almost equal strength with the secessionists. The free movement of people has led to a massive damage rate in both regions, leading to the destruction of properties, loss of lives, displacements and many other socio-political damage results.In addition the rise of the anglophone crisis that progressively turned from a non violence to deadly conflict serve the purpose of this illegal trade (kidnapping and asking for ransoms). A trade which has inspired many Anglophone Cameroonians looking for a means to defend their family property as they will say, but the heavy manner in which the government handled the 2016 peaceful protest sparked the flame of the crisis thus opening the room for a rise in socio-political instability and conflict resolution in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon.


One could definitely say that things have fallen apart in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon.Though there is high level of socio-political instability in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon, the government is as well putting in conflict resolution methods, in order to slowly but surely get things back to normal in both regions. The condition most conducive to promote this conflict resolution is related to peace settlement and the reestablishing of socio-political instability is the wake of dialogues, considering the needs of the regions for a better and equal development of the state. The creation of these conditions may be assisted in various ways by external actors (Zartman 1995; Regan 2000).

To effect, this research is to seek how socio-political instability and conflict resolutions are happening in both the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon.


  1. What are the courses of socio-political instability in Cameroon?
  2. What are the measures or solutions that can be put in place to resolve this conflicts?
  3. What are the effects of the socio- political instability in Cameroon?
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