SUB REGIONAL INTEGRATION: THE SETBACKS OF THE FREE MOVEMENT OF GOODS AND PEOPLE IN CEMAC
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The study aimed at accessing Sub Regional Integration: The Setbacks Of The Free Movement Of Goods And People In CEMAC. We also examined some key times that have been of very importance in the setting up the CEMAC in the form we have today. Then we went through the literature that has been developed around the issue before sorting out the particularity of our topic which was to find out the different difficulties that the sub-region is facing for the fulfilment of its integration. To tackle the issue, we built up a main hypothesis and many secondary ones that we tried to verify with a survey realized in our study site of Kye-ossi (Cameroon). At the end of this survey, and after various tests of the hypotheses, we arrived at the conclusion that the main obstacles of integration in the central Africa sub-region are the dizzy spell of institutions established to implement the decisions of the organization. But also, infrastructures are not up to the task to favor free movement of goods and people. However, cultural barriers are not strong enough to constitute a hindrance to the integration process though some states were afraid of the bad moral values that could come from neighboring countries. The hypothesis of protectionism was equally raised and came to be right. Finally our main or principal hypothesis was accepted.
Before the independence, it was already possible to have a sketch of what is known today as Central African economic and Monetary Community [CEMAC] mostly known under its French acronym CEMAC [Communaute Economique et Monetaire dAfrique Central]. Its history roots can be traced back as far as th nineteenth century as part of Germanys colonial expansionism projects. But the first steps towards regional integration have been laid under the French colonial regime. The setup of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa[FEA], in French Afrique Equatoriale Francaise[AEF] in1919 regrouping Gabon, Congo, [now Republic of Congo], Oubanguichari [now Central Africa Republic],chad and Cameroon was primarily aimed at facilitating the administration of the central Africa territories under French rule. Although FEA or AEF was dissolved in 1958 when its members achieved semi-autonomy, the newly independent states renewed the idea of regional cooperation among themselves in the 1960s. it is in this line that the Central Africa customs and Economic Union [CACEU] IN French Union Douaniere des Etats de lAfrique Central[UDEAC] was created in 1964,and became operational in 1966. Equatorial Guinea only joined the Common union in 1984.
Later, to match with the so called “second wave of regionalization” in the 1990s followed by most other regional organizations on the African continent like ECOWAS, SADC or EALA for instance, and to better resist the economic crisis of the time, UDEAC had to be restructured. The newly restructure organization gave birth it CEMAC in 1994. CEMAC became operational after the ratification of the treaty creating it by all six members in 1999 in N’Djamena. The N’Djamena treaty defined as main objectives of the community to converge and monitor national economic policies, to coordinate sectorial policies and to progressively create a single market.
But the least thing we can say the project of regional integration stands today at a critical juncture, with a well laid out institutional architecture and a division of labor between regional and national authorities. However though we can guess that financial logistical limitations of CEMAC still prevent the implementation of the broader mandate, is the only obstacles faced by CEMAC community? Are CEMAC’s countries doing enough in favor of integration with the means available or the facilities they have at their disposal? A lot of declarations have been brandished in that directions but some evidences can easily permit us to assess their seriousness
Although CEMAC is often cited as one of the oldest and the most structured regional arrangements in Africa, and despite the fact that the CEMAC countries have witnessed some periods of relative political stability and an acceptable social environment, things have not been working the way it were supposed to be from UDEAC till today compared to the other regional organizations. The revenues of CEMAC countries essentially lay on fuel exploitation, the industrial sector is almost inexistent. And added to these problems is the fact that members states have not been able to established a genuine corporation among themselves by rendering effective the decisions taken on paper, there by jeopardizing the common regional integration project that could boost their economies. Globally it seems to appear a big ditch between the brandished political will and the reality on the ground. The above mentioned fact and statistics are evidence of that bitter reality. This is probably due to many reasons that will constitute the core element of our research. The question that will lead us throughout our project is formulated as follows: What are the hindrances to an effective and efficient sub-regional integration in central Africa?
For a better apprehension of the theme, we subdivided the above main question into four  secondary questions that will help us easily arrive at an answer. Those subsidiary orientations are:
What are the structural breaches to the set-up of genuine integrated community in central Africa?
What are the reasons of the reluctance of some member states about a sub-regional integration?
1.3 Research Questions
1.3.1 Main questions
Are Sub Regional Integration: The Setbacks Of The Free Movement Of Goods And People In CEMAC?
1.3.2 Specific questions
– what are the structure ( norms, infrastructure and institutions)insufficiencies that are not yet up to the basic needs of a sub-regional integration project?
– why are some members states of the Central Africa sub-region are reluctant to the free circulation?
– what are the socio-cultural disparities between the people of member states which are not playing in favor of a good integration?
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.4.1 Main objectives
To access Sub Regional Integration: The Setbacks Of The Free Movement Of Goods And People In CEMAC
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
– To identify the structure ( norms, infrastructure and institutions)insufficiencies that are not yet up to the basic needs of a sub-regional integration project
To examine why some members states of the Central Africa sub-region are reluctant to the free circulation
To observe the socio-cultural disparities between the people of member states which are not playing in favor of a good integration
HO: P = 24.996, Structure insufficiencies that are not yet up to the basic needs of a sub-regional integration project
H1: P = 24.996, Structure insufficiencies that are up to the basic needs of a sub-regional integration project
HO : P= 24.996, Members of states of the Central Africa sub-region are not reluctant to the free circulation
H2 : P= 24.996, members states of the Central Africa sub-region are reluctant to the free circulation
HO : P= 23.2, there are no socio-cultural disparities between the people of member states which are not playing in favor of a good integration
H3 : p = 23.2, there are no socio-cultural disparities between the people of member states which are not playing in favor of a good integration
FURTHER READING: POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS WITH MATERIALS