Research Key

The Effects of Extrinsic Motivation on Students’ Academic Achievement of Some Selected Schools in BUEA Division

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Department
EDUCATION
Project ID
EDU298
Price
5000XAF
International: $20
No of pages
60
Instruments/method
QUENTITATIVE
Reference
DESCRIPTIVE
Analytical tool
YES
Format
 MS Word & PDF
Chapters
1-5

Abstract

 

The purpose of this research project was to find out “the effects of extrinsic motivation on students’ academic achievement of some selected schools in Buea subdivision”.

 

Specifically, the study was guided by three objectives which were: To investigate the extent to which gifts can influence the teaching-learning process, to find out the influence of praises on the academic achievement of students and to establish the degree to which previous results affects students’ academic achievement. From these objectives, three research questions were formulated as follows:

 

How gift in the teaching-learning process affects students’ academic achievement? and to what extent praises can influence students’ academic achievement? and How can previous results affect students’ academic achievement?

 

This led to the formulation of hypotheses both in the null and alternative form that guided the conduct of the study. The study adopted the survey research design with secondary school students in public in Buea Municipality constituting the population of the study from which a sample of 81 students was selected using the simple random sampling technique.

 

Data was collected using an opened ended Questionnaire consisting two sections A and B. Descriptive statistics (measures of central tendency, bar charts and pie charts) were used to analyze the data collected from respondents. The main finding of this study revealed that extrinsic motivation has a significant effect on the students’ academic achievement in Buea Municipality.

 

And the specific finding revealed that gifts, praises and previous results have a great impact on students’ academic achievement. Based on these findings, the study recommended that:

 

Extrinsic motivation is an important factor in learning. Therefore parents and teachers should provide enough motivation to student, prize given ceremonies should be intensified in all school and parents should be actively involved and schools and government should continue to award scholarships to deserving students. Suggestions for further research indicated that the same topic could be repeated in other regions in Cameroon.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background of the Study

 

Generally, Motivation is viewed as the reason for acting or behaving in a particular way, a set of facts and arguments used in support of a proposal. According to Luma, (1983) motivation is the force that keeps you going and doing things, and that arouses your interest and desire for success. It is the drive that sustains your will to float not to drown even in the face of serious difficulties.

 

According to Tambo, (1984) Motivation is the process of arousing, sustaining and regulating activity. It is the act of applying incentive and arousing interest for the purpose of causing a pupil performs in the desired way.

 

Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as Intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, Expectations of the individual and of his or her peers.

 

In light of the above viewpoints, motivation acts as an incentive that arouses students’ interest and desire for success. In the teaching-learning situation, motivation can be extrinsic or intrinsic that is to say two types of motivation exist

 

Extrinsic Motivation is external; According to Tambo, (2012), it comes as a result of pressure or forces outside the learner. A child who is extrinsically motivated learns because he/she is afraid of punishment by parents or teachers. A child may also learn because he/she wants to be rewarded with marks, praises, a pleasure trip and Christmas cloths from parents.

 

Parents are in the habit of motivating their children extrinsically by promises of such rewards. Teachers and parents play a major role in motivation, which leads to students’ educational success. Students who have lost interest in learning need more extrinsic motivation.

 

Extrinsic motivation is also seen as motivation which comes from outside the individual. The motivating factors are external or outside rewards such as money. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not necessarily enjoy an activity to perform well in order to receive some kind of reward or to avoid negative consequences (Amadi, 2007

 

Achievement motivation by Murray, (1938) is the need to accomplish something difficult that is to overcome obstacles and attain a high standard to rival and surpass others. To increase self-regard by the successful exercise of talents. It is also to outperform others and to meet high standards of excellence. Above all, the need for achievement involves the desire to excel especially in competition with others.

 

High achievement motivation correlates positively with measures and career success and with upward social mobility among lower classmen. Murray developed the Thematic Appreciation Test (T.A.T) to measure the need for achievement and other human motives.

 

A number of studies show that people who score high in need for achievement differ notably from those in moderate or low need for achievement scores.

 

One way to help instil a desire to achieve is to encourage children to set reasonable goals and to provide ample reinforcement for their success. Reasonable goals are likely to be achieved thus allowing children to experience success.

 

Winterbotton (1958) found that children who demonstrate high achievement motivation usually had parents who expected them to master their own environment and to show independent behaviour well before their teenage years. Although every student has that enthusiasm to learn, statistics have shown that some students needed to be motivated before effective learning can take place.

 

This researcher was extrinsically motivated at the high school by her parents and family members. Presently she has observed that intrinsic motivation is better than extrinsic motivation because, with intrinsic motivation, one is driven to search for knowledge so as to increase one’s skill in learning. However, both forms of motivation are necessary for the teaching-learning process.

 

Although it is still not very clear which of these two types of motivation is preferable with regards to learning, it may be much better for the teacher to try to understand both types of motivation and use them in a complementary manner.

 

For example, the teacher can use marks or praises to extrinsically motivate the students. At other times he may convince pupils about the need to be more knowledgeable in the subject (intrinsic motivation).

 

It should be noted that teachers are in privileged positions to know the most appropriate form of motivation to be used because they have the opportunity to observe the students in various situations for many hours.

 

This even explains why some teachers said some students in the class are ‘’unmotivated ‘’ because they do not show sufficient interest in what they have to learn and therefore something has to be done to arouse their interest in learning.

 

More so, if learners are not motivated they will not have an interest in learning for example and when they do not perform well it becomes a problem not only to the parents and teachers but to the environment and society as a whole.

 

This is because when learners do not attain their academic goals, the majority turn out to be bandits or cause societal miss-happy such as drug abuse, scam, robbery, and other mal-practices that one can think of as a result of not being motivated either extrinsically or intrinsically.

 

On the other hand, we can say that if these learners were motivated able to attain their educational goals, they might have been better placed or better still be able to know what is wrong and what is right. This will enable one to know where and what he/she wants and where they are heading.

 

 

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

 

Achievement motivation plays a major role in students’ academic performance. It has been shown that some students need to be motivated before effective learning can take place.

 

During my teaching practice, I was observed that students who are motivated by indicators such as praises, gifts and results, turn to perform better and have high participation in class as well as ask questions to understand. This is as opposed to students who are not extrinsically motivated.

 

Moreover, if learners are not motivated they might not have interest in learning for example, and when they do not perform well it becomes a problem not only to the parents and teachers but to the environment and society as a whole.

 

This is because when learners do not attain their academic goals, which may lead to dropout and impending social problems.

 

On the other hand, we can say that if those learners were motivated and able to attain their educational goals, they might have been better placed or better still be able to invest more useful energy in their learning. It is for this reason that the study seeks to investigate extrinsic motivation on students’ academic achievement

 

 

 

1.3 Research Objectives

 

1.3.1 General Objective

 

To find out the effects of extrinsic motivation on students’ academic achievement of some selected schools in Buea subdivision.

 

1.3.2 Specific Objective

 

This study seeks to investigate the extent to which gifts can influence the teaching-learning process.

To find out the influence of praises on the academic achievement of students.

To establish the degree to which previous results affect students’ academic achievement.

 

 

1.4 Research Questions

 

1.4.1 General research Question

 

How does the effect of extrinsic motivation influence the academic achievement of learners?

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