The effects of the different ICTS on the academic performance of students in BUEA Municipality
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This chapter will examine; the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, Hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and definition of the study, definition of major terms.
1.1 Background to The Study
1.1.1 Historical Background
Education began informally when children learned trades of their parents. The duties of parents were shifted when the society become more work demanding. Parents were recognized as role models and all-knowing and the children under their care considered as blank slates to be written on.
The invention of alphabets, numerals and the system of inscribing in clays in the 3100 BC assisted the teaching/learning process as information could be stored and revisited in the future. Further invention of paper in 105 AD enabled features and learners to document knowledge.
The Johannes Gutenberg invention of the printing press in 1436 made a drastic positive change in education; textbooks, newspapers and other vital documented tools in education were produced.
After the 15th century, graphs, charts, boards, chalk, quill pens, pencil (1795), erasers (1770) and rulers (1675) became introduced in education and the formal training of teachers to become a norm.
In 1920s, school museum and motion pictures were used in American schools. In 1930-1940s, photography, displays, radio, and programmed instruction were introduced in the US school. Televisions were also introduced in the 1950s – 1960s in US schools.
By 1970s, videotape, recorders were introduced alongside televisions and application of pre-recorded programs became a major educational activity. All of these discoveries showed a gradual improvement in the science world. These also marked the gradual introduction of technology in the field of education.
Another notable argument to this effect is by Kelles-Viitanen (2003) who referring to developing countries in general, commented that ICT plays a major role in all aspects of national life: in politics, in economic life, as well as in social and cultural development.
She further argued that ICT is rapidly transforming the way people do business, access information and services communicate with each other and even entertain themselves. The UN ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration (2000) provided special attention to the application of ICT for development, for which urgent and concerted actions at the national, regional and international levels have been suggested. A Microsoft Corporation (2007) report on its ICT initiatives in Africa acknowledged that technology alone does not drive development but enables it. In the report, while noting that 300 million Africans live on less than $1 per day.
The country has to overcome this challenge in order to provide quality education for all. Consequently, ICTs has been introduced in the curriculum of schools in Buea.
It is especially adaptable for teaching in those schools that are remote or isolated from the main urban centres that may have other forms of ICTs more readily available. Radio possesses a big advantage over other learning experiences in the form of music, language, history, literature, drama and many social studies areas (Tambo, 2003).
Leke.I. Tambo, (2003) observed that, television is one of the most impressive technological wonders developed in the 20th century. Although it has been used in the more technological advanced countries for more than half century, it is only recently that the medium has available to a sustainable number of people in African countries. In some of these countries, the medium, owing to lack of infrastructure such as electricity, is still not available to most people living in rural area unlike the radio which is familiar to many people, the use of television at this time tends to be concentrated in the urban areas.
1.1.2 Conceptual Review
Educational institutions may utilize ICT to enrich the students with skills and knowledge for the 21st century (Andoh, 2012), such that it can add to worldwide accessibility to education, educational equality, broadcasting of quality teaching-learning programs, educators’ professional growth and to help in obtaining a more effective educational management.
Hence, accessibility, inclusion and standard being the key issues of education, can be comfortably addressed through ICT. ICT improves the standard of education by encouraging learning through ongoing discussion, delayed time discussion, directed instruction, self-learning, critical thinking, data seeking and analysis (Yuen, Law & Wong, 2003).
Utilization of ICT can enhance outcomes, instruction, administration and create important abilities in the underprivileged groups (Sharma, 2003), and at the same time influence educational instruction and research process (Yusuf, 2005).
In classroom teaching and learning process, the use of ICT is imperative as it gives chance to the instructors and learners to operate, store, control and retrieve data other than to promote selfregulated and active learning (Ali, Haolader & Muhammad, 2013).
ICT-based learning includes an expanded propensity towards collaborative learning among learners and instructors, not just in a specific classroom. This kind of collaboration is in contrast to the conventional learning environment, for example, distance learning inspires educators and learners to engage in learning even after school time (Ali, Haolader & Muhammad, 2013).
The system helps Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) 75 Hussain, Suleman, Din & Shafique instructors to plan and prepare lessons and design materials such as course content (Ali, Haolader & Muhammad, 2013).
The rapid development of this system has prompted a revolution in learning as new technological advancement in education has involved the re-examination of new techniques and instruments in instructional process. Computers and the Internet have been touted as potentially capable means to empower the users for educational changes and improvement, by utilizing various information and resources and reviewing information from different points of view; hence, cultivating the authenticity and actuality of learning situations (Tinio, 2003).
ICT helps to make complicated things simple to comprehend by simulations that once more add to real learning situations. Hence, ICT may act as a facilitator of dynamic learning and higher order thinking (Alexander, 1999). To enhance the academic performance of students, there is a need to turn from conventional teaching methods to modern teaching methods. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is space and time independent making it convenient for students to go through the program either at home or on a school computer. This encourages interactivity, which individualizes content for each learner based on their needs and it provides formative feedback to multiple choice questions.
CAI enhances learning rate where the learners are able to learn more materials given the same amount of time as compared to conventionally taught learners. Moreover, students receiving instructions through ICT retain learning better (Cotton, 2001).
The issue of low achievement among the learners has been tormenting the instructive framework right from the elementary classes to 76 Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) Effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) university level. This issue wastes human potential and facilities for education.
The findings of the study will confirm the effectiveness of ICTs in teaching of chemistry and also predict that ICT based instruction is better than conventional teaching approach. In addition to enhanced achievement scores, the findings of the study will boost the interest and retention of the students.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Following the introduction of online registration at the university of Buea and the recent introduction of “Mobile Money” by MTN and ORANGE network communication companies in Cameroon in general and its implementation into the university of Buea in particular, it is discovered that most of the students were computer illiterate as they could not go through the registration process and the payment of registration fees. It is observed that the various secondary schools these students attended especially in the Buea municipality had no ICT devices like computer, internet, televisions, radios that could introduce their studies to important learning skills, therefore causing students not to be versed in the use of these devices. This study is therefore aimed at investigating the use of ICTs and their effects on students’ academic performance.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
1.3.1 General Objective
The main objective of this study is to identify the various types of ICT used in secondary schools and their effects on students’ academic performance.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the Study
To fine out the effect of computer on students’ academic performance.
To find out the influence of television on student academic performance.
To find out the effect of telephone on student academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
1.4.1 General Research Question
What are the effects of the different ICTs on the academic performance of students?
1.4.2 Specific Research Questions
To what extent does computer affect students’ academic performance in the Buea municipality?
To what extent does television effect students’ academic performance in Buea?
To what extent does telephone affect students’ academic performance in the Buea municipality?