Molyko, Southwest Region - Buea, Cameroon


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The impact of teaching methods on students’ academic performance in geography in secondary schools in BUEA Sub-Division

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The study was set to find out “the impact of teaching methods on students’ academic performance in Geography in secondary schools in Buea Sub-division. The objectives of the study were; The type of teaching method used in the teaching of Geography and their effects on students’ academic performance, How the use of illustration method of teaching affects students’ academic performance in Geography, the extent to which demonstrative method of teaching affects students’ academic performance in Geography, to determine how

corporative method of teaching affects students’ academic performance in Geography and How the use of discussion methods affects students’ academic performance in Geography? The sample size was 60 correspondents from the three government schools who answered the questionnaire in Buea Sub-division. The research question was analyzed using percentage and the results were presented on frequency tables coupled with Histogram and bar charts.

The major findings were; students agreed that discussion method enhance their academic performance in geography that, illustration method of teaching increase their performance in Geography that, discussion method facilitate their level of comprehension in the teaching of geography enhance good academic performance. And students also agreed that cooperative method of teaching enhance academic performance in geography in Buea Sub-Division. By this, the research concludes that an eclectic method of teaching is preferable in the enhancement of a good academic performance in Geography.






1.0 Introduction


For more than decades research in variety of school districts and states has subjected considerably heterogeneity in impact of teaching method on student academic performance. This has acted as stimulus to find out which teaching method is best for teaching of geography in secondary schools and the impact they have on student academic performance. This chapter will lay emphasis on background, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objective of the study, research questions significance of the study and operational definition of term.




1.1 Background Of The Study


Education is an avenue of training and learning especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and skills excel in chosen fields of endeavor or career and to be positively impact in the environment. On the contrary, the end resorts of learning process have failed to maintain high degree of academic achievements and excellence amongst learners recipients education in institution of learning as this days (ASSEFA et al, 2008, Akanbi, 2010). Cameroon and the world at large are talking about sustainable development for which geography cannot be set aside nor separated from plant to achieve sustainable development.  Development is the process in which the neither people nor beneficiaries are actively involved in deciding what and how to provide them. In order for people to participate meaningfully, there is the need to equip them with necessary lifelong or process skills such as communication, collaboration or team skills, tolerance, decision making as well as leadership skills (Nwafor, 2012) more background of the study is made up of historical background and conceptual backgrounds which are explained below as follows.


1.1.1 Historical Background


In the past, most parents and teachers where very interested in teaching their children to grow deeper. In the knowledge using different method without using text books which will help them improve on their performance. Again during that time, teacher was untrained unlike today that teachers are trained and yet performance are low and students are less active in class, this is due to the lack of interest by the teachers to use these methods appropriately.


The evolutional trend of the formal method of teaching in the past has evolve the used of modern method introduced by the Western world as formal methods are use to transfer knowledge from a more knowledgeable to a less knowledgeable person. With the evolvement of technology, modern techniques are introduced like the used of explicit methods, drill and practice, pure lecture illustration, demonstration, discussion, laboratory, dramatization, recitation, and corporative learning strategy. This method of teaching has greatly influenced the performance of students in different subjects especially the used of lecture demonstration, illustration, discussion and cooperative learning have influence academic performance of students in geography. This is supported by Lake Tambo (2003). Santock (2004) supported the fact that demonstration is one of the best methods used to teach.


According to Benson and Doval (2002), lecture illustration is a modern method used to teach and that the min tax of the teacher is to explain and illustrate process and relationships and to test to find out if students have learned.


Another modern technique used to teach geography is the corporative learning strategy which is supported by Johnson et al, (1984) and Widemen, and Eadie, (1990) that students in corporative work in small groups of two, three, four or five. These educationalists say that when students are shared in to small groups four to five they turn to share idea easily without and difficulty and thus perform very well.


One of the best modern methods used to teach geography is the use of discussion method which involves the verbal exchange of the idea among students and teachers. This has been supported by Kellough (1988) and Lake Tambo (2003), these authors accepted the fact that discussion method promote communication skills and thinking skills of students. It leads to interaction between students. And teachers and this promote positive questioning techniques between students. All of these modern methods use to teach geography have a great influence on student performance positively as it improves human relations.


1.1.2 Contextual Framework


These sections present a summary of the research findings related to reach of the methods of teaching, used to teach geography in this study. This can be seen in the following headings.


Indigenous Method of Teaching


In Cameroon context, before the use of formal education, these have been the existence of indigenous education around the (1884) before the German Annexation. According to Leke Tambo (2003) under educational administration, there existed indigenous education which governs the lives of the indigenous community. The indigenous society used formal method to transmit knowledge from the elder to the children, before the coming of formal education of the Western world, the methods used for study where Communalism which is an approach parents used to raised their children within a community and each individual saw his or her wellbeing as tide to the welfare of the community, preparationism was a methods used as children were prepared to assume certain role in the society which are economically, politically, socially and cultural roles. Parennialism is a philosophical approach which requires students to learn in order to perpetuate culture. Also, children were taught on how to carry out hunting, fishing and farming which is holistic.


All of the above methods used by the indigenous elders to teach their children are the formal method of teaching. Geography was taught as boundaries of clans and tribes. Literature as myth, proverb and storytelling, history as evaluation and ancestors, Art as carving, designing, and calabash. Indigenous education is importance as it led to the responsibility of the child’s education for various stages of development. Ma Donald et al, (2001) shows that a previous method of teaching affects the future methods and performs positively and negatively.




1.2 Statement of the Problem


The academic performance of students in geography can be greatly influenced by the methods used in teaching. This research is to study some teaching methods to find out how they are used in the teaching of geography may influence academic performance of secondary schools in Buea Sub-Division.




1.3 Purpose of the Study


The purpose of the study is to investigate on the teaching methods in


Geography and how they influence students’ academic performance in Geography in secondary schools of Buea Sub-Division.




1.4 Objective of the Study


These are statement of intended outcomes with respect to the teaching methods and the impacts on students’ academic performance there are:


1.4.1 General Objective


The researcher seeks to investigate the different methods of teaching geography and how they influence students’ academic performance in secondary schools of Buea Sub-Division.


1.4.2 Specific Objective


The study seeks to find out;


The type of teaching methods used in the teaching of Geography affects students’ academic performance in the subject.

How the use illustration method of teaching affects students’ academic performance in Geography?

The use of demonstration methods of teaching affects students’ academic performance in the subject.

The use of discussion methods of teaching affects students’ academic performance in the subject.

How the use of corporative method of teaching affects students’ academic performance in Geography?

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