The implications of the temporal closure of the CDC plantation on the livelihood of the labourers
No of pages
|MS Word & PDF|
The custom academic work that we provide is a powerful tool that will facilitate and boost your coursework, grades and examination results. Professionalism is at the core of our dealings with clients
For more project materials and info!
Call us here
Plantation agriculture has it root in the past. In the early 18th and 19th Centuries, a number of plantations were set up by westerners and western companies. They employed either local or foreign workers who were willing to work for the small wage. For example, the rubber plantation set up by the British in Malaysia employed many workers from India. The problem of the temporal closure was due to socio-political instability in the Region has had diverse effects on the workers ranging from a limitation in the availability of jobs, difficulties in paying their house rents. Medical benefits and other benefits like family allowances are no longer available and the social amenities enjoyed by the workers are not functional.
The study was design to assess the livelihood of the labourers before the socio-political crises, to assess the livelihood situation during this temporal closure of the plantation, to explore the adaptation strategies put in place. In order to realize this work, a sample population of 60 persons were sampled in a stratified random manner. In realizing data for this work, descriptive statistics and results were being presented in tables. findings reveal on the effect of the temporal closure on Health status shows that, (61.7%) of the population agreed that the situation has affected their health status that is free medication workers benefit, also the situation has affected the income, feeding and health status of the labourers (58.3%) of the population agreed to the fact that the temporal closure of the plantation affected the income of the labourers. It was concluded that developing countries rely entirely on agriculture especially plantation agriculture for their economic take off. The onset of anglophone crisis characterized by socio political upheavals has really affected both the workers in particular and the entire CDC plantation in general. In order to recommend this the government should call for a proper and meaningful dialogue with the parties concerned. This will secure a peaceful working condition.
This chapter comprises of the background of the study, the statement of the research problem which explains the main issue at stake as concerning the “implication of the temporal closure of the CDC plantation on the livelihood of the labourers”. It will also consist of the research questions, objectives hypotheses, the significance of the study, the scope of the study, the study area, the operational definition of terms and the chapter layout.
Background of the study
Plantation agriculture is typically defined as a large-scale, of foreign owned and specialized, high-input and high-output farming system that is mostly export oriented. Plantation agriculture is more than 400 years old and contributes to the regional and national economies in many tropical countries (Hartemik, 2005).
On the social front, plantations have sometimes involved the forceful takeover of lands and related resources thereby displacing local populations, disrupting local livelihoods, and resulting in land conflicts (Hall, Scoones & Tsikata 2017). In Latin America, for instance, sugarcane and palm oil plantations are typically developed on native forests which these communities depend on for water, food and building materials as well as on lands that they use to grow staple crops (Mingorria 2018). In the main lands of Africa, the situation is not too diverse. In Ghana, exports from cocoa accounts for approximately 60% of the country’s earnings, while in Indonesia, the revenue from cocoa is approximately USD 600 million per year (Hartemink 2005). However, the rapid expansion of plantation areas has created undesirable side impacts, both environmental and social. On the environmental front, unsustainable plantation growth is often accused of causing increased emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), loss of biodiversity, water cycle destabilization, soil erosion, nutrient loss as well as land and water pollution.
Cameroon has a plethora of agro plantations both at large and small scales. The most common plants concerned are: cocoa, coffee, coconut, rubber, oil palm, and tea. These plants are grown in the humid tropical regions in a forested environment. Now, in Cameroon, our locus will be the Cameroon Development Cooperation (CDC) which runs banana, palm oil, and rubber plantations in Cameroon’s troubled southwest. In August 2018, the agro-industry said that more than 6,000 of its 20,000 workers had fled sporadic attacks, killings and kidnappings from armed separatists fighters in the south west Region of Cameroon.
As far as the livelihood of the plantation workers at this temporal closure is concerned, it is going to be very important that we start on it by looking at these workers from the moment of this attack that led to this temporal closure , taking into consideration the serious threats, attacks and critical onslaught that left some of the workers at the edge of life and death. Governor Bernard Okalia Bilai of the southwest region said besides inflicting wounds and suffering, some workers have been killed, others kidnapped and held hostage and some plantations have been completely destroyed. As a result, life has dropped for these affected workers in all standards seriously.
The on-going crisis in the country only came to worsen the situation of the workers of the CDC plantation in Tiko, who had already been on a protest march just shortly before the afore-mentioned attack from the armed separatists. Even upon this, after the temporal closure of the plantation company, reports of last year show this information: that on Tuesday, October 13th 2020, a group of workers, about twenty in number, of the Cameroon Development Corporation, CDC were currently protesting on the streets in Tiko, South West region of Cameroon, demanding for thirteen months of unpaid
salaries. Latest news on the strike indicate that they were heading to the office of the Divisional Officer of Tiko to express their worry (cdc-cameroon.net, February 2021). Consequently, work stopped, production dropped, the company lost much and some workers have had everlasting marks which may never leave them to want to work ano gain.
As this work will develop, we shall be noticing that even the hopes of those who had already been longing for their unpaid salaries before this crucial attack came into despair as even this small gap of hope became lost, wit the company now instead closing up. More so, it is then evidently clear that even right after the temporal closure , the workers who still man up the streets to protest for salaries were doing so as a result of the long period of hunger and an unavoidable “no work holiday,” coupled with the loss of hope as to whether these locked up doors will ever be opened again. At the end, this is going to be the problem yet to be dealt with: if there will be a means or cover-up for all these gaps of previous salaries unsettled right through all these periods of no work, the sponsorship of those immediate victims of the brutal and devastating violent attack.
Statement of Problem
With the development of the CDC plantation in Tiko, it gave employment opportunities, infrastructural development, increase in living standard, educational benefits, and adequate social facilities to the labourers. Also, medical attention was given to the workers and this enabled improved health and income management. With all these benefits, there became a rapid population growth in Tiko due to the CDC plantation improving development in the town.
The sudden and unfortunate closure of the CDC plantation temporarily due to the sociopolitical instability in the Region has had diverse effects on the workers ranging from a limitation in the availability of jobs, which has led to a drop in the standards of living, difficulties in paying their house rents for those who were not opportune to stay in the camp houses provided by the CDC. Medical benefits and other benefits like family
allowances are no longer available and the social amenities enjoyed by the workers are not functional.
It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to investigate the effects of the temporal closure of the CDC on the livelihood of the CDC labourers.
- Research Question
- Main research question
What have the workers of the CDC plantation of Tiko been going through since the crisis leading to the temporal lockdown of the plantation?
Specific research questions
- How was the livelihood of the labourers before the socio-political crises?
- What is their livelihood situation during this temporal closure of the plantation?
- How have they been adapting to the situation?
- Research objectives
- Main research objectives
- To assess the implications of the temporal closure of the CDC plantation on the livelihood of the labourers
- Specific objectives
- To examine the livelihood of the labourers before the socio-political crises
- To assess the livelihood situation during this temporal closure of the plantation
- To explore the adaptation strategies put in place
FURTHER READING: GEOGRAPHY PROJECT TOPICS WITH MATERIALS