THE INFLUENCE OF COUNSELLING SERVICES ON STUDENTS’ CAREER CHOICE
|GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING|
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This dissertation examined “the influence of counselling services on students’ career choice in some selected schools in the Kumba III Municipality”. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of counselling services on students’ career choices.
Three research hypotheses were used for this study. The objectives were; to investigate the extent to which orientation service influences students’ career choice, to determine the role of information service on students’ career choice, and to find out whether follow-up service influences students’ career choice.
The instrument used was a questionnaire distributed to students from the three selected secondary schools in the targeted area. The sample of this study comprised of 100 respondents from three Secondary schools in the Kumba III Municipality.
The data obtained which was measured using the Chi Square shows the following results. Firstly, there is a significant, positive and strong relationship between orientation service and students’ career choice with (P<0.000) far less than 0.05.
The high value of Pearson chi square (x 2 = 90.773**, n = 80, p< .05) implies that orientation service strongly and positively influences student career choice.
Also, findings showed that there is a significant positive influence of information service on student’s career choice. That is, information service was seen as a significant predictor for students’ career choice.
It was therefore resolve that; to greater extent information service has a significant positive role on student career choice.
Chi Square test conducted on the data showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) variation in the mean score on information service and students career choice (X 2 =87.01), while a linear-by-linear association stand at 1.21.
Lastly, finding showed that there is a significant, positive and strong relationship between follow up service and student career choice. It was also revealed that to a greater extent follow up service has a significant impact on student career choice.
Chi Square test conducted on the data showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) variation in the mean score of follow up service and students career choice problems(X 2 =22.549), while a linear-by-linear association stand at .001.
This chapter introduces the study, it focuses on the background of the study, the statement of the problem , presented the hypothesis as well as the objectives of the study not forgetting some operational definition of terms and the significance of the study.
Education has been described as a vital and indispensable key to any form of development (Jibrin et al, 2012).
Education in its broadest sense encompasses all the processes individuals go through in life to develop and optionally utilize their potentials through the acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes that are necessary for effective living in the society.
According to Umar et al, secondary school education is the engine room of knowledge acquisition, a stage at which students come in contact with various subjects which at the end of the day, play a role in determining their career.
Counseling services are designed to facilitate student achievement, improve student behavior and attendance, and help students develop socially.
Guidance in secondary schools can be traced back in the early 1930s where it emerged as an undefined and informal relationship between teachers and students.
Employment difficulties for school leavers in the 1930s at the end of the Great Depression highlighted the need for guidance in schools and the Vocational Guidance Service was created to support the transition into the workforce (Lynes,2001)In the 1970s the school counsellor was beginning to be defined as part of a larger program, as opposed to being the entire program.
The 1980s saw the development of training standards and criteria for school counseling. This was also a time of more intense evaluation of education as a whole and counseling programs in particular.
The development of national educational standards and the school reform movement of the 1990s ignored school counseling as an integral part of a student’s educational development.
Guidance and counseling as a course study have been conceptualized as a program of activities which has provided man with the gateway out of the existing numerous problems in this present age of complex scientific and technological development (Okobiah and Okorodudu 2004).
The UNESCO module on guidance and counseling (2000a) also stated that guidance and counseling is a professional field which has a broad range of activities, programs and services geared towards assisting individual to understand themselves, their problems, their school environment and their world and also to develop adequate capacity for making wise choice on their career.
Counselling is the service offered to the individual who is undergoing a problem and needs professional help to overcome it.
The problem keeps him disturbed, high strung and under tension and unless solved his development is hampered or stunted. Counselling therefore is a more specialized service requiring training in personality development and handling exceptional groups of individuals.
According to Willey and Andrew (2011), Counselling involves two individuals one seeking help and other a professionally trained person who helps to solve problems, orient and direct him towards a goal which leads to his maximum development and growth.
Counselling services are therefore required for individuals having developmental problems because of the handicap they suffer in any area of emotional either because of hereditary factors or environment conditions.
Counselling is an integral part of an over-all programme of guidance.
It is therefore in line with aspects of counselling that this research work would be reviewing concepts of counseling services such as; Orientation service Information service and Follow-up service which are counselling services that play major roles in the educational life of secondary students.
Theories provide a model for understanding human thoughts and behaviors. Throughout psychology’s history, a number of theories have been proposed to explain and predict various aspects of human behaviour.
In order to understand the influence of counselling services on students career choice, Albert Bandura’a Social Learning Theory, John Holland’s Theory of Vocational Career and Donald Super’s Developmental Self Concept Theory were chosen, which provided a theoretical foundation for the current study.
These theories were chosen because of their relevance to career issues especially career choice.
They include both social and cognitive factors while being sensitive to cultural aspects. Students live in a social world where they interact with the environment as they seek guidance towards careers. These theories deal with the cognitive aspects by making the students aware of their decision.
In the case of Cameroon, the evolution of guidance and counselling in Cameroon can be broken down into three interrelated areas.
Firstly, the era of searching of counselling movement characterized by the attempt to achieve change with a strong bias to the selection of appropriate manpower.
Furthermore, there was a rise in the placement of counselling services to the government unit or authority. Secondly, the era of identity marked by the separation of career and educational challenges from those of labour and employment.
While labour and employment remained within the competence of the Ministry of Labour, a guidance bureau was created within the Planning services of the Ministry of National Education for Career and Educational Problems.
Thirdly, the era of innovations or new directions marked by the opening of guidance counselling training options within the Department of Science of Education at the Higher Teacher Training College in Yaoundé.
Although guidance and counselling is considered as the third pillar of the Cameroonian educational system after pedagogy and school administration, its impact on Cameroonian secondary schools remains minimal for many reasons such as: lack of trained school counsellors, lack of sufficient time and lack of facilities and orientation materials Makinde (1984) recommends that schools should provide finances which will allow the school counselors to have equipment, materials and travel allowances necessary for them to carry out their functions.
For counselling services to be effective in Cameroon schools, there has to be sufficient fund made available to counselors.
The funds provided would enable the counselor to get a regular supply of books, journals, magazines and visual aid materials, which in turn, will equip the counsellor with current and accurate information for students, thereby helping to effectively and efficiently carry out counselling services such as the information, orientation and follow-up services.
In addition, students select their choice of subject as early as Form4 . The choice of subjects is solely handled by the students without adequate information about the world of work.
If secondary education is to be relevant to the needs of the students, it is essential that the students be assisted in selecting curricular at an earlier time and equally understand the importance of having a guidance counsellor in a school milieu.
Career choice decision making process is one of the key elements in an individual’s life.
There exist numerous problems encountered by students in their process of Career choice. Wrong career selection opens the door for lifelong consequences.
Such individual’s by underperforming becomes a source of inefficiency not only for themselves, their organization but also for the economy as a whole. Choice of subjects and course as a result of lack of sufficient information is a major problem.
There is a conflict between the student’s freedoms of occupation and not only that of the nation’s manpower needs, but also the conflicts between the students’ choices, the parents’ choice and friend’s advice.
The problems encountered by students in their process of Career choice is that some secondary school students are not properly guided due to insufficient or no counseling services, counseling services are not encouraged and even where they exist they lack professional counsellors.
Also inadequate information to guide students on different career prospects. Authors such as (Eyo, et al.,2010; Eremie, et al., 2018) concur that personal-social, educational background, physical, and economic factors affects students career choices.
When considering the educational stage at which choice is to be made, secondary school is the Best option.
This is because most of these students choose jobs without relating them to their interests, satisfaction and capacity to cope with the nature of the job. It is against the backdrop that the study was carried out to investigate the influence of counselling services on career choice.
There exist numerous problems encountered by students in their process of Career choice.
The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of counselling services on students’ career choice
- To investigate the extent to which orientation service influences students’ career choice
- To determine the role of information service on students’ career choice
- To find out whether follow-up service influences students’ career choice
The following research questions were raised to assist the this investigation
- How does counselling services influence students’ career choice?
- How does orientation service influences students’ career choice?
- How does information service influences students’ career choice?
- How does follow-up service influences students’ career choice?