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The influence of the school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in the BUEA MUNICIPALITY

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This study investigated “The Influence of School Environment on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in the Buea Municipality.’’ It sought responses to the following four specific research objectives:  (1) to examine the impact of school facilities on the academic performance of students in the secondary school, (2) to investigate the impact of class size that has been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning in the academic process of students in secondary school, (3) to examine the extent to which school location affects the academic performance of secondary school students (4) to investigate the impact of peer relationship on students’ academic performance. Four hypotheses were also generated from these specific research questions.


A co-relational survey design was used in this study to carry out the investigation. A purposive sampling technique was used for this study. Data were collected from students using a questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to students in form four, five, lower and upper sixth. Frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the closed ended questions.


The chi-square was used to compare students’ performances and the conceptual components to appraise significant differences. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables (to test the research hypotheses).


The findings revealed that school facilities (r=0.297 p=0.001), class size (r=0.302 p=0.001), school location (r=0.348 p=0.001) and peer relationship (r=0.299 p=0.001) has a significant affects on students academic performance. A major recommendation made was that the government should initiate and implement relevant adequate school facilities that will assist students in the teaching learning process towards their academic performances in schools.






1.0 Introduction


The school is a formal setting where learning takes place. The school environment therefore is a very important setting for appropriate learning to takes place depending on the physical environment of the school and the school climate. The term school is one of the social institutions that is responsible for the development and training of the mind and skill of man. It is also for the preparation of man for the challenges and responsibilities in the society at large.  The importance of education has been well accentuated in all societies whether developed or developing, ancient or modern. It is as a result of this obvious truth that every country accords great emphasis to education both in terms of quality and access.


Research on school environment means and environment where teaching and learning has been carried out. Examples of this school environment includes instructional spaces planning, administration places planning, circulation spaces planning, Human beings are always immersed in social environment, which not only changes the very structure of the individual or just compels to recognize facts but also provides with a readymade system of signs. Two environments home


and school share an influential space in child’s life. Researcher sees the school as the most important experience in the process of child development next to home. When the child enters the school area, he is presented with new opportunities in terms of socialization and cognitive development. These opportunities are provided in different measures in school and may have a direct impact on cognitive and affective development of students.


The school is the most dynamic institution which should keep pace with the changing needs of the society. It should also develop in each individual the knowledge, interest, ideals, attitudes, habits, skills and powers, whereby he/she will find his/her right place in the social order and use that position to shape him/her and the society both towards the higher and nobler ends. The attainment of such objectives require proper school environment.


The school administration should work towards the improvement of school climate, so that a better output from school could be expected as for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. Future, still be divided into more subtypes that correspond to specific brain processes.


Looking at the school as a social system, there are some issues which create a conducive and favorable teaching and learning process towards the academic performances of students and as such policies have been put in place to combat the said research problems of inadequate classroom, unstructured teaching materials and methods, poor management of classroom but it is still a major problem as students come to schools and end up at roads size because of inadequate school facilities, poor location of school, overcrowded classrooms as well as poor peer relationship which thus affects the academic performances of some students in the institution.


Academic performance is a term that measures the knowledge gained in formal education usually indicated by test scores, grade, grade points, average and degrees. Here, the achievement level of the student is judged by the marks that the students have scored in the quarterly examination. The following sub headings are articulated in chapter one, that is; Background to the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, justification of the study, significance of the study scope of the study, and operational definition of terms.




1.2 Statement of the Problem


Looking at the school as a social system there are input, processes and output which need to be put in place to create a conducive teaching and learning process. The school environment has a key role to play in the academic performance of students when the teaching learning resources are meet (financial and human resources), good teaching methods, good classrooms conditions, good teachers’ relationship, school accessibility, peer influence, teaching and learning materials will play a major role in the academic performance of the students.


From the above mention points, policies have been put in place to enhance a good school environment but it is still a major problem as to some negatives aspects such as overcrowded classrooms, poor teachers relationship, the absent of libraries in some schools, poor lightening


conditions in some classrooms, poor classroom management by some teachers, poor organization of the classroom and poor instructional material organized by some teachers in a classroom, which will thus cause some students to come to school and unable to attend lectures because of the inadequate and poor school facilities as well as school locations, which are been located beside snacks, churches, markets, road and rail way stations. Thus enable majority of students to hang up


at snacks, road sides and out of class which in the long run they end up as school dropout and will eventually affect their academic performances and as such they will end up as street children. The


problematic here is academic performance is being affected by the school environment due to the inefficiency of some school facilities, class size, school location and peer relationship as a result of the school environment not enabling. As a result of this, this study is out to investigate the influence of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in the Buea municipality.




1.3 Objectives of the Study


1.3.1 General Objective


To investigate the impact of school environment on student academic performance in secondary school in the Buea municipality.


1.3.2 Specific Objectives


To examine the impact of school facilities on the academic performance of students in the secondary school,

To investigate the impact of class size that affects the academic performance of students in secondary school.

To investigate the extent to which school location affects the academic performance of secondary school students.

To investigate the impact of peer relationship on students’ academic performance.

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