THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF BREAST CANCER PREVENTION AMONG WOMEN AGE 35 YEARS AND ABOVE AT MOLYKO-BUEA
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Breast cancer is the principal cause of cancer death among women in the world. African women in comparison with their incidence of cancer, disproportionally bear a high cancer rate. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness, practice, and prevention towards early detection strategies.
This study was conducted in Molyko community in Buea and adopted a descriptive cross-sectional design was used to have a sample size of 90 participants. Self-administration questionnaires were used.
Analyses were done using excel. About 86.7% knew about breast cancer and only about 53.7% knew that breast cancer is preventable While about 47.7% were educated at school and 26.7% from seminars. 66.7% have heard about breast self-examination but 80% indicated that they don’t know how to perform/techniques involve in breast self-examination. 80% had no idea as to when and what age should mammography be done and none of the participants has ever gone for mammography.
Therefore the result shows, it should be noted a lot needs to be done on the practical work on breast self-examination in schools, community level, and in homes. In addition, more mammogram centers need to be created at subsidized prices for the community.
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor in the glandular tissues of the breast. Such tumors also called Carcinomas, form when the processes that control normal cell growth break down, enabling a single abnormal cell to destroy an increasing proportion of the normal breast tissue over time, may spread or metastasize to other parts of the body (Encarta 2009).
Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide without control and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissues. It often spread throughout the body (Edward 2019)
Breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ is cancer that forms in the cell of the breast. It is an abnormal growth of cancerous cells in the breast (Sandhya 2019).
Breast cancer is estimated to be the most common cancer worldwide. Throughout the world, breast cancer is been increasingly recognized as a public health problem. About a 1.38million new breast cancer cases were diagnosed in 2008 with almost 50% of all breast cancer patients and approximately 60% of deaths occurring in developing countries.
There is a huge difference in breast cancer survival rate worldwide, with estimated 5 years survival of 80% in developing countries face resource and infrastructure constraints that challenge the objective of improving breast cancer outcomes by timely recognition, diagnosis, and management. The world health organization (WHO), enhance breast can survival by early detection remains the foundation of breast cancer regulation.
In Africa the prevalence is high; however, the epidemiology of cancer in West Africa is unknown. But a recent view of the breast cancer data suggests that the lack of early dictation programs and limited access to surgical care is being diagnosed at a very late stage, and it is rapidly increasing due to the increase in life expectancy, Urbanization, and adaption of the western lifestyle. Proximally 50% of breast cancer cases and 58% of deaths have been reported in Africa (Developing countries).
Despite this limitation, Breast cancer in Cameroon is diagnosed at advanced stages and resulting to poor outcome. A retrospective cohort study conducted in (Yaoundé) Cameroon, found an overall 5years survival rate of 30% and 10 years survival rate of 13.2% amount breast cancer patients treated between 1995 and 2007. From January 1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2011, a review was carried out in sex pathology laboratories in four towns (Yaoundé, Bafoussam, Bamenda, and Douala).
A total of 1394 cases of breast cancer and 903 cases of cervical cancer were analyzed. For breast cancer, 91.944% of women were 30 years old or above. This rise is due to the lack of an effective national prevention policy against it. If a national study confirms it is a trend, then the primary preventive strategy should be urgently implemented.
1.2 Problem Statement
Breast cancer is being increasingly recognized as a public health hazard in women (age of 35 years and above). Most of these women seriously affected are from developing parts of West Africa, Cameroon.
Most of these women are at risk for invasive breast cancer that spread to the surrounding tissues. However, there is not enough reliable data collected from the above study and how well informed they are on the preventive measures (Sandoz 2 et a 2015).
African women; in comprising with their low incident of cancer disproportionately bears a high cancer mortality rate (Fregene and Newman, 2005). It has been estimated that, by the year 2020, approximately 70% of new cancer cases will occur amongst individuals in developing countries incidence, with a substantial fraction like to be breast malignancy (Jonas 1999). This is complicated by a late presentation that generally characterizes cancer diagnosis amongst Nigerian and other African Women, with about 70 to 90 presenting late, hence diminishing survival probabilities compounded by exorbitant cost (Anyanwu 2000).
A few studies on knowledge and practices towards breast cancer have been conducted in Yaoundé general Hospital Cameroon (between 1995 and 2007) each of these studies has recorded low knowledge and practice amongst the participants.
These studies show that many women are not aware of the danger of breast cancer such as breast amputation, breast deformation, and even death because little knowledge about breast cancer has been given to them by the health personnel.
That’s why they need for new studies especially in Cameroon (Buea) is necessary to ascertain levels of improvement. This would be necessary for designing appropriate awareness creation of intervention strategies and educating the masses bout breast cancer. This study was then to access women’s knowledge and practice in the prevention of breast cancer.
1.3 Aim Of The Study
The aim of this study is to access women’s knowledge and practice in the prevention of breast cancer in Cameroon so as to help reduce morbidity and mortality related to breast cancer and by improving the knowledge and prevention of breast cancer in women.
1.4.1 General Objective
The purpose of this study is to assess the practice and knowledge of women on the prevention of breast cancer age 35 years and above in the Buea Community
1.4.2 Specific Objective
To access women knowledge on breast cancer and breast cancer prevention.
To evaluate women knowledge and practices on breast self-examination
To access women knowledge and use of mammogram
1.4.3 Research Question
Do women have adequate knowledge of breast cancer?
Do they have knowledge of self-breast examination?
Do they have any practice in the prevention of breast cancer?