The Role of field trip in the teaching and learning of geography and its effects on students’ performance in secondary schools in Buea municipality
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This chapter covers the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study and the operational definition of terms.
Background of the Study
Every society has its own system of education. Indigenous Africa society had their own way or system of training their young children before the coming of Western education.
This was done through field work. Education therefore helps to developa child, physical, affective and psychomotor domain which has been influenced by a conducive location for learning in or out of the school premises.
For over four decades, series of studies have suggested the importance of field trip to students learning. Some of these studies are examined out of classroom studies at times to translate theories into practices.Omoyemi(1978) discovered that locations of schools were not based on sound principles of learning, so most at times learners have to go out of the school location to experience what is not found in the school.
Generally, education is the sum total of a person’s learning experiences during his or her lifetime. Education helps people to understand themselves, other people and their environment. It also enables them to change and improve their society.
Before the coming of the formal education, the indigenous system of education was based on practices or field study in Cameroon that was the pre-colonial era (1844-1884).Here the issue of peer was little or less occurring as the young adult learned only from the elderly were knowledge, experience and attitude was mostly transferred from the old to the young.
The coming of the missionaries in Cameroon gives the birth of formal education which the first school was created in Bimbia by Joseph Merrick in 1884. During the colonial period, Cameroon was introduce to the formal system of education where by children, young adult, where taught in the same setting and also taken out for field work to experienced what was taught in the classroom.
This encouraged peer interaction as the learner forms clicks of their respective age group. According to Castrogiovanni (2OO2) a peer group is defined as grouped ofsimilar aged of fairly close friends sharing the same activities in the environment provide a sense of security and also build the self-identity when going out for field study.
Students are been expose to interested learning location which turn to increase their understanding during learning.The social infrastructure such as libraries, laboratories, museum, recreational parks, zoos, mountains and transports also play an important role to students learning when they go out for field trip to some of these places.
Cached (1976) refers to site’s building, furniture and equipment that contribute to learning environment where he said If a school is not well furnished like students will not love to be in class and if there is no learning material like it will slow down learning process, hence reducing students’ academic performance, which can be improve by field trips.
Tambo (2012) says that the obstacles on the system of secondary education by the undesired effect of the economic crisis were enormous and include the inability to cope with the large cities and under socialized zones.
Consequently insufficiency of the accommodating structures in schools, shortage of teaching personnel, gross lack of logistic support, massive departure of teachers without being replaced and inadequate didactic materials.
From the views of educators, there is lack of classroom, toilets, teachers and teaching materials and ineffective pedagogic control, which has turn to improve the love for field trip from all sectors of education.
Mbua (1983) argues that conversely, a good academic mental performance and the environment should not only have adequate environment also adequate teaching-learning materials and enough space for physical exercise and mental development which leads to progress in the school.
For example, Arnold et al (2005) using descriptive statistics from the National Education Longitudinal Study of (1988) (NELS: 1988), examined educational aspirations and postsecondary access by students in urban and rural schools desired for going for field trip.
Making a critical analysis of location factors, Hallak (1977) surmised that provision of education in rural areas is normally fraught with the following difficulties and problems, which turn to limits the desires and love to go for field trip more than their urban friends,
Balogun (1982) lamented that unfortunately in Nigeria, where there is a preponderance of poverty among us populace and a wide gap between the rich and the poor, disparity in the distribution of resources and social amenities on the part of the government, the population has polarized into two of those who favorably affected and those who are disfavored these two groups have been forced on economic reasons and levels of education to organize themselves into two different sub geographical locations to a very large extent determine what amenities and or facilities are made available to each for learning.
The above findings were corroborated by Mbakwe(1986) when he affirmed that teachers are differentially, those from locations with amenities will prefer more to take learners for field trip than those from areas with fewer amenities.
Statement of the Problem
Field trip has been a major aspect to bring the learning done in the classroom to the students reach. Learners in the past had little or no opportunity to practical learning than now. Husde(2001)examined educational aspirations and post-secondary access by students in urban and rural schools to influence field trip or not in the United States of America.
Making a critical analysis of location factors to field trip and also due to my teaching practices, observational experiences, students or learners are been refused the privileges to go for field trip, this cause them to limit their learning or understanding when teaching.
Based on the fact that students learning geography don’t have a significant different in their learning outcome compared to the students in the past, this has prompt the researcher to carry out this study on the topic, The effect of field trip on the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe 1 municipality.
Objectives of Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the effect of field trip on the teaching and learning of geography in LimbeI municipality.
The research is aimed at finding out;
- The role of laboratory learning and its effects on the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality.
- The role of geographical site and its effects on the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality.
- The role of school museum and its effects on the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality.
- The role of outdoors learning and its effects on the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality.
The research question will be divided in general research question and specific research questions
General Research Question
How does field trip affect the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality?
Specific Research Questions
- How does laboratory learning affect the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality?
- How does geographical site learning affect the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality?
- How does school museum affect the teaching and learning of geography in Limbe I municipality?
- How does outdoors learning affect geography student’s learning outcome in Limbe municipality?