The Significance of Cultural Tourism for Sustainable Development in Nguti
|TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT|
No of pages
|MS Word & PDF|
The custom academic work that we provide is a powerful tool that will facilitate and boost your coursework, grades and examination results. Professionalism is at the core of our dealings with clients
For more project materials and info!
Call us here
Cultural tourism is not new; since ancient times cultural tourism has been a motivation for travel, although only among a tiny minority of the general public. Cultural tourism especially festivals and events play an important role in promoting Sustainable tourism, most particularly cultural tourism. The presence of different intangible culture such as: festivals and events are being enjoyed and celebrated by the local people and international tourists.
The main objective of the study is to assess the significance of cultural tourism for sustainable development in Nguti. Data were collected with the use of primary and secondary sources. Primary data were collected with the use of observation methods, questionnaires and interview guides. Secondary data were collected through unpublished and published materials from the internet, megazines, journals and articles.
Data were analysed using descriptive statistics using frequency, percentages, charts and tables. Findings reveals that the cultural artifacts of the Mbo people in Nguti are cultural display of miankum, drums ,basket weaving and meat, traditional regalia, local carving(wood mortal and pestle), traditional mienge house, cultural mask monument, Gongs, lake Bermin, traditional dish among other where traditional artifects.
Based on this, set of research questions what could be the challenges and recommended solution. Cultural tourism has led to the sustainable conservation and promotion of the culture of the Mbo people in Nguti. The study also identified problems and some solutions to the study which are discussed on the chapters below.
Cultural tourism is not new; since ancient times cultural tourism has been a motivation for travel, although only among a tiny minority of the general public (https://www.sfasu.edu/heritagecenter/image/Chapter_3_Heritage Tourism_.pdf accessed on the 10 January 2022). Some historians consider Herodotus to be the first tourist. He travelled around the Mediterranean in the fifth century B.C. to learn about other cultures and gratify his curiosity about the world beyond Greece. Starting in the second century A.D., Romans began an early form of cultural tourism by travelling to Greece, where they observed art, theatre, philosophers, and high culture. In 1200 A.D., the Roman Catholic Church encouraged everyone to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land and other holy sites such as Canterbury, Rome and Santiago de Compostela. Between 1200 and 1300 A.D., all social classes made pilgrimages to the Holy Land to witness its beauty, experience an exotic culture, eat unfamiliar foods and purchase souvenirs. But it is only since the early 1980s that cultural tourism has been recognized as distinct from recreational tourism. Today, cultural tourism is a worldwide mass trend that people travel to experience other cultures. Statistics show a definite increase in the number of tourists participating in cultural tourism (https://www.sfasu.edu/heritagecenter/image/Chapter_3_Heritage Tourism_.pdf). Culture tourism is seen as a major growth industry of the 20thcentury and towards the end of the century the cultural sector had generated one of the most desirable development options for all countries and regions worldwide (Richard, 2009).
Today, cultural tourism is considered the world’s first investment movement of the 21st Century. Cultural tourism can play an important role in community continuity, renewal, and development, increased quality of life associated with cultural resources. Cultural tourism helps to maintaining individual and community identity, it providing for pleasure/recreation opportunities. Cultural tourism can play in economic revitalization and sustainable tourism development (Adams, 1990). Furthermore, cultural tourism play a vital role in building community pride, enhancing the sense of identity of a community or region, promoting intercultural/international understanding, encouraging revival or maintenance of traditional crafts, enhancing external support for minority groups and preservation of their culture, providing funding for site preservation and management, enhancing local and external appreciation and support for cultural heritage (Forsyth, 1997).
Belgium is a small nation full of UNESCO-acclaimed sites in the capital city of Brussels (Hassan, 2000). Bruges is a major cultural tourism attractive sites for tourists with its perfectly preserved medieval streets rimming tranquil canals that lure flocks of travelers each year. Belgium provides a huge chunk of European heritage attractions within a bite-sized piece of land such as; The Cathedral of Our Lady (‘Onze Lieve Vrouwkathedraal’), the market square, the town hall, the guildhouses, The Plantin Moretus Museum, the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Museums of Modern Art and the ‘Museum aan de Stroom’ (‘MAS’) are the cultural heritage attractions in Belgium (Chourasia & Chourasia, 2012). But plenty of other towns in the country particularly Ghent and Mechelen retain excellent architectural examples from the Middle Ages as well.
In Latin America, cultural tourism heritage is fostering sustainable cultural tourism because most relevant sites bear outstanding universal values (Isa, Ariyanto, & Kiumarsi, 2019). World heritage cultural tows like the Santuario de Las Lajas and Sao Francisco de Assis in this region act as significant tourism attractions. Many Latin American cities such as Columbia and Brazil are endowed with a rich legacy of buildings, public spaces, and urban structure (or combinations thereof), which are generically termed urban heritage (Rojas, 2002). For example, Columbia monuments and structures are: government buildings, churches, convents, hospitals, military installations and defensive walls built during the colonial period that are often refined examples of baroque or neoclassical architecture and the military engineering of the period. These cultural heritages have been enhanced with the addition of public buildings, residences and various types of industrial architecture which are increasingly prized by the communities. The government has defined and implements measures that prevent such historic sites from becoming only a beautiful place for tourism, something that could lead to prioritization of the expectations and desires of visitors to the detriment of local communities (Isa, Ariyanto, & Kiumarsi, 2019).
Zambia is predominantly a copper mining country which is also the main source of income for socio-economic development (Mustafa & Saleh, 2017). Zambia has abundant and largely untapped natural cultural resources which can be developed to support a sustainable tourism industry. For instance, the country currently has 23 IUCN Category II, protected Areas (20 National Parks and three Wildlife/Bird Sanctuaries), 36 Game Management Areas together occupying 31.4 % of Zambia’s land mass; several forest reserves; over 100 National Heritage Sites, over 50 registered traditional ceremonies, about 40% of freshwater in Southern African sub region, Scenic Monuments (Kalambo falls, Chishimba falls, Chipoma falls, Kundabwika falls, Lumangwe falls). Historical monuments (Niamukolo Church, Goodnews Monument and Chambeshi Monument). Archeological monuments (Mwela Rocks and Nachikufu Cave). Although tourism is currently described as an emerging industry and the fastest growing industry in the world, Zambia has not taken advantage of its huge potential to tap into the global market. It has performed poorly in the area of revenue collection and is the lowest in the region (in comparison with countries of similar potential) (Chomba and Sianjobo, 2014).
Malaysia is experiencing an incredible pace of tourism development and heritage tourism is one of the tourism branches that have long contributed to appeal the tourist destination and acts as important marketing tool to attract tourist especially with special interests in heritage and arts (Ismail, et al., 2014). Cultural heritage tourism has emerged as a potential form of alternative tourism among both international tourists as well as Malaysian domestic travelers. The difference of ethnics present in Malaysia brought different local knowledge discipline ranging from its architecture, handicrafts, traditional attire, music and dance, which reflects a colorful heritage and an amalgamated culture. The are several challenges such as: lack of collaborations to date in terms of managing the assets between the local authority and other stakeholder and insufficient financial support and fund in managing heritage assets that need to be review to develop a success cultural heritage tourism industry especially in understanding different perspectives between tourism operators, cultural heritage managers and the communities itself (Ismail, et al., 2014).
Cameroon is commonly known as “Africa in miniature” due, to its different diversities such as natural features, which include fauna and flora, beaches, mountains, rainforests savannas and its cultural diversity especially in terms of religions, cultures, rituals and festivals(Noudou, 2012). It is a country with over two hundred different ethnic groups.The cultural heritages of Cameroon are: Cameroon Development Cooporation (CDC) plantations, University of Yaounde, the Bismarck Fountain, the Old German Post, Alfred Saker Monument, Sasse College, the 50th Anniversary Reunification Monument, Charles Atangana Monument in Yaounde, Civilisation Museum in Dschang and the Historic national museum, the historic and art museum at the Foumban Royal Palace. The country also hosts a number of festivities such as the Ngondo, the Nyem-Nyem and the Medumba. These festivities attract a large number of tourists who come to savor the rich and diversified cultural attractions (Noudou, 2012). Cameroon has witnessed a considerable increase in the development of tourism most especially cultural tourism. Cameroon faces some difficulties which need to be taken into consideration in order to have a good cultural sector such as: lack of awareness of the significant of cultural heritage, lack of security, unequal distribution of profit and lack of the community to participation in tourism particularly cultural tourism(Noudou, 2012).
Nguti is endowed with diverse cultures which enable the promotion of cultural tourism for sustainable development. It has different ethnic groups. The tangible heritages of the Mbo culture in Ngutiinclude; cultural attire like a long sleeve white shirt and loincloth (sanja) with a black hat or red cap for the men while the women put on a gown (known in the local language as Kaba) with a headscarf tied on their heads. Traditional meals like; Koki corn, pounded cocoyam and nzab (black soup), Koki beans with plantains or banana, water fufu, sweet yams, red yams (mbu) and vegetables such as huckleberry, green, garden eggs, waterleaf, okogobong and bitter leaf, craftwork such as weaving and carving for weave baskets, chairs, tables and carve drums. Cultural Sites like Mboh’, ‘Njip’, Bambe Escarpment, Ayong Sacred Forest Site, Lake Birmin and Ekeigh Balong. This Municipality is also blessed with intangible heritages/culture like traditional festivals like;traditional marriages, death celebrations, ‘Amab’ Festival (buddle), youth and cultural weeks. traditional dances like; Ngone, Club, Asiko, Mwewang, Abiyong, Beloh, Berow, Nsuck-mah and Amoh Ekaph which is a ‘juju’ or sacred dance which are used for cultural tourism. The state of development of these cultural values is till at a decline stage.This study will guide the researcher on the significant of cultural tourism to sustainable development in Nguti.
Cultural tourism especially festivals and events play an important role in promoting Sustainable tourism, most particularly cultural tourism (Noudou, 2012). The presence of different intangible culture such as: festivals and events are being enjoyed and celebrated by the local people and international tourists. Sustainable cultural tourism in the 21stcentury has become a global market and this creates an organic and interdependent system whereby supply and demand see significant changes both in time and space (Kastenhotz, 2012).
Nguti is facing difficulties which need to be taken into consideration in order for the Sub-Division to have a good cultural tourism sector. They include: the lack of awareness, the locals do not even have a clear idea of what cultural tourism and sustainable tourism is about, lack of promotion, inadequate infrastructures like: restaurants, electricity and water supply for tourists to support cultural tourism activities in Nguti, lack of security, inadequate transportation facilities such as roads, lack of the community to participation in tourism and particularly sustainable cultural tourism aremajor problems hindering the development of cultural tourism for sustainable development in Nguti.
These problems will cause difficult for the communities in Nguti to promote sustainable development in Nguti if they are not mitigated, it will have negative consequences on the tourism sector in Nguti such as: lead to hostility on the part of the local community, non-respect of the norms and traditions of the Mbo culture in Nguti, lead to the selling of authentic ritual objects which are meant for tradition, loss of the cultures of the Mbo culture in Ngutiand desecration of rituals, sacred places, which are not supposed to be seen by non-initiated peoplethus, leading to the extinction of the culture.
There is little research work on the significant of cultural tourism in Cameroon especially in Nguti such as: Noudou, (2012) who focused on “the cultural diversification of tourism and their importance in Cameroon. This is because of the huge gap currently existing in the development of cultural tourism for sustainable development in Nguti. It is only in recent years that the attention of researchers has been drawn to the issues of cultural tourism in Cameroon. No studies have worked onthe significant of cultural tourism to sustainable development in Nguti. Thus necessitating the current study.
1What are the cultural artifacts found in Mbo culture that can be use for sustainable development in Nguti?
2) How has cultural tourism contributed to the growth of the Mbo culture for sustainable development in Nguti?
3) What are the challenges plaguing sustainable cultural tourism development in Nguti?
4 Which strategies can be put in place to boost sustainable cultural tourism development in Nguti?
To assess the significance of cultural tourism for sustainable development in Nguti.
- To identify the cultural potentials found in Mbo culture for sustainable development in Nguti.
- To examine the significant of cultural tourism for sustainable development in Nguti.
- To investigate the challenges plaguing sustainable cultural tourism development in Nguti.
- To recommend strategies that can be implemented to boost sustainable cultural tourism development in Nguti.