The use of educational technology and its support in the reading skills of pupils in two primary schools in the BUEA Municipality
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This research was aimed at determining the use of educational technology and its support in the reading skills of pupils in two primary schools in the Buea Municipality. Some specific objectives were made such as to identify the effect of chart in the reading skills to infant, to find out the use of television in the reading skills of infants and to find out the use of computer in the teaching of reading skills to infant’ academic performance. The literature was reviewed based on the theoretical review, conceptual review and review of related literature by objectives (empirical review) in which the researcher reviewed theories like the cognitive theory of learning by Piaget observational learning theory or social learning theory by Bandura, Soco-Cultural Theory by Vygotsky (1962-1978). It was conducted in Buea municipality using 40 students from three government primary schools. The research design used was a descriptive survey research design. The target population of the study constituted pupils and teachers of GPS Muea I, GPS Muea Il and GPS Molyko Town. A questionnaire was used for data collection and the instrument was validated by the supervisor. The data collected was analysed using the tables of frequencies and percentages. From the findings, it was concluded that the use of educational technology and its support in the reading skills of pupils in two primary schools in the Buea Municipality. The findings implied that the use of educational technology tools should be introduced in the teaching and learning process.
This chapter will examine; the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and definition of the study, operational definition of terms
The teacher learning process needs much instructional material for kids to better understand a lesson. These materials which are termed educational technology can never be underrated in the teaching of reading speaking and writing skills to kids. For a child to perform better in school, he/she needs the help of teaching materials otherwise known as ‘’teaching aids’’ to facilitate the teaching process and also to meet the demand of the 21st-century computer age. This chapter discusses the background of the study. It presents the research question, objective of the study and discusses the significance of the study s well as delimitation of the study and defines the key operational term.
1.1 Background To The Study
Historically, Paul Steeler’s evolution of American educational technology, 1990, is one of the most historical accounts. Technology has been closely linked with teaching. Phaedrus,Manguel, (1996). According to the bible Moses used chisel stone to convey the Ten Commandments probably around the 7th century B.C. but it may be more helpful to summarize educational technological development in term of the main modes of communication. Education began informally when children learned trades of their parents. The duties of parents were shifted when society becomes more work demanding. Parents were recognized as role models and all-knowing and the children under their care considered as blank slates to be written on. The invention of alphabets, numerals and the system of inscribing in clays in the 3100 BC assisted the teaching/learning process as information could be stored and revisited in the future. The further invention of paper in 105 AD enabled features and learners to document knowledge.
The Johannes Gutenberg invention of the printing press in 1436 made a drastic positive change in education; textbooks, newspapers and other vital documented tools in education were produced.
After the 15th century, graphs, charts, boards, chalk, quill pens, pencil (1795), erasers (1770) and rulers (1675) became introduced in education and the formal training of teachers to become a norm.
In 1920s, school museum and motion pictures were used in American schools. In 1930-1940s, photography, displays, radio, and programmed instruction were introduced in the US school. Televisions were also introduced in the 1950s – 1960s in US schools. By 1970s, videotape, recorders were introduced alongside televisions and application of pre-recorded programs became a major educational activity. All of these discoveries showed a gradual improvement in the science world. These also marked the gradual introduction of technology in the field of education Furthermore. One of the earliest means of former teaching was oral communication in ancient times, stories folklores, and histories and news were transmitted and maintained through oral communication, making accurate memorization in other to build their children to understand the means of communication. Oratory speech was the means of which people learn.
Slate boards were used in Indian in the 12th century AD and black and chalkboards were in school around the turn of the 18thcentury. At the of the second world war US armies started overhead projectors for training and they’re used became common for lecturing until being largely replaced electronic protectors and presentational software such as power points around 1990. This meant being the paced to point that most technology used in education did not develop specifically for education but not for others (meanly business).
Although the telephone date from 1870s the standard telephone never became educational tool not even in distance education because of high cost of analogue, telephone call for multiple users, although audio conference has been used supplement other media since 1970s.Video conferencing using the dedicated cable system and dedicated conferencing has been since 1980. The development of video compression technology and relatively low-cost video saver in early 2000 led to the introduction of lecture capture system for recording and streaming classroom lecture in 2008. Webinars are now using largely lecture over the internet.
The role of writing or text of education has a long history story even though is reported have railed against the role of reading written from one communication makes analytic lending chain of reasoning and argument much more accessible, reproducible, without the distorting and thus more open to analyze and critique and transient nature speech. The invention of the printing press in Europe in the 15th century was truly disruptive technology making, written knowledge more freely available much in the same way the internet has done today.
Conceptually, according to Tambo (2012) educational technology has consisted of devices and process that enhance the teaching and learning process. Educational technology it seems to be a device or a virus teaching material that are capable of: Assisting the teacher to more effectively, Help learners to learn more effectively.
The term teaching aid is avoided because when it is used to stand for educational technology the impression is given is that, teaching is carried out by the life teacher who is aided by these media.
In recent years, technology has changed from being a peripheral factor to becoming more central in all forms of teaching. To understand the role influence of technology, we need little history because there are always lesson to be learned from history.
Ajaga, (2004) explains that, while other countries of Africa continent are gravitating to adapt science and technology, (particularly information communication technology), Cameroon is notoriously slow down in innovating. Tambo,(2012) recount these materials are now available to some extent in Cameroon, the infrastructure necessary to make than widely available to teachers and school is still developing. Some of the technologists to be seen here include charts, radio, television and computer.
Television also can have used to teach aspect of English language like sound and words building pronunciation spelling reading etc television programmes in a school system depending on the kind of programmes and their availability to the school. A computer is any device that can receive stores and act upon a set of instructions in a predetermined sequence, and that permits both the instruction and data upon which the instruction acts to be changed. There are four ways in which computer-related technologies can be used in the teaching-learning process. They can be assisting the teacher in teaching more effectively.
Contextually, Tateng, (2007) in the survey of information communication technology in education in Africa, recounted that Cameroon is among the sub – Saharan Africa counties that are making enormous progress in the use of the information and communication in teaching information communication technology in the various development sector, including education. The private school introduced information communication technology into their curriculum in 1990s but there is no specific policy guiding the teaching or use of information communication technology was officially introduced into education by Terry, F (2001). The best way for effective learning is to provide first land experience like showing real object. That is chair, table, boy, apple to make this experience near-reality; we need the help of visual aids flashcards, radio television, and computer internet to support classroom teaching. It is important to note that a mere collection of audiovisual aids cannot make teaching effective and meaningful. They are only aids and not substitute for the teacher. These audiovisual materials are classified into three major categories. This is based on the learner’s auditory sense [sense related to listening hearing is called an audio aids. Such involved blackboard, bulletin, chart, pictures, photographs and textbooks etc. the third categories of aids are visual in the both listening (ear) and viewing (eyes) are involved. Such aids are television, video, motion picture; computer etc. technology will hinder the teaching-learning process.
David, F. (2001), explain that even information communication technology (ICT)is a relatively new curriculum subject, the introduction of computer into educates back to the late 1970s in the case of secondary school although the closest linked to the use of information communication technology can be seen a little later with introduction into primary curriculum dictates that computer should be used within other subjects, although it was not a huge success at the time Cotton, 2001). The issue of low achievement among the learners has been tormenting the instructive framework right from the elementary classes to 76 Vol. 4 No. 1 (June 2017) Effects of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
David Shriner brings 25 years of corporate sales and consulting experience toL’Ecole Normal supe’rieure (ENS) group, with the last 16 years in computer training. He has served as a leading-edge partner to numerous businesses and industries, assessing both corporate and individual technology training needs. Keta Nana is a full- time staff instructor with ENS group who bring over 20 years of experience teaching most popular software application used in today’s business environment. Those applications include the Microsoft office suite words, Excel, PowerPoint, visual basic for application. Some nursery school in Buea Municipality would be used as a case study to examine the role of education technology in improving speaking skills in infants.
Theoretically, believes that student’s constant knowledge of transforming organizing and reorganizing previous knowledge and information is based on their environment. This is to say that what they see and touch shapes their understanding f their environment. According to Piaget, (1973), he says ‘’teaching should provide for students with teaching aids to explore their world and develop their own understand’’ A classroom filled with interesting educational technologies encourage students to become active constructors of their knowledge through experience.
According to King. (2000), in the theory of situated recognition, he says situated recognition is an important assumption is social constructive approach; It refers to the idea that thinking is situated in social physical context, not within an individual’s mind. It is a theory of learning founded on the premise that by reflecting on our experience, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of our generates our own ‘’rules’’ and ‘’mental models’’ which we use to make sense of our experience. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental model to accommodate new idea given by the teacher.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
While on practicum 1 in G.S Buea Town, it was discovered that most students are faced with difficulties in reading. The researcher came to discovered that, since the teaching of reading skills does not begin in secondary school, it, therefore, implied that the student did not encounter the problem in secondary school but from basic educational level. Children as young as three years of age recognized differences between prints and drawings. They gradually begin to discriminate the distinctive features of point and drawings. Therefore, to what extent does the use of educational technologies to teach infants improve on their reading skills, or retard the development of reading skills in infants.
1.3 Objective of the study
1.3.1 General Objective
The general objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of educational technology in the teaching of reading skill on infants.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
The study seeks to:
Find out the effect of the chart in the teaching of reading skill to infants.
Find out of television in the reading skills of infants.
Find out the use of computer in the teaching of reading skills to infants.