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Social Economy
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International: $20
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 Coconut which is a coconut palm is a botanical plant that grows mostly on saline soils near beaches and tropical habitat. It produces seeds or fruits which has thick brown shells, most of the time, before these fruits are consumed, the shells are removed and thrown away. These shells can be transform in to useful materials such as coconut pots, spoons, coconut shell lampshade, coconut shell pen stand, candle holder, soup dishes, which can be useful rather than wasted.

 This project seeks to valorize coconut shells for the production of teacups, saucers and a jar. The methodology used was to obtained coconut shells from collecting, treating and shaping them into teacups, saucers and jars of different sizes. In this project, eight coconut fruits were used for teacups, ten coconuts fruits were used for saucers and three were used for the jar, making a total of twenty-one coconut fruits. We succeeded in producing eight (8) teacups, eight saucers (8) and one (1) jar. This project is going to go a long way to be able to increase the materials in the household and to eradicate the wasted of the shells of coconut and to help in managing waste disposal.

Keywords: Coconuts, coconut shells, teacups, saucers, jar.



1.1 Background of the study

The coconut palm mostly grows on Saline soil near beaches and tropical habitats. Authorities claim that the coconut palm tree became popular from the Southeast Asian region, while another theory suggests its origin in the north-west of South America. Its spread has been attributed to two key factors. The natural disposal happened as coconuts floated from shore to shore. Coconuts are thick but light which can travel for several months on seawater. Coconut shells, once discarded for no use, are now a greatly demanded raw material for many products. Coconut shells are used in the handicraft industry that is used in handicraft industries to make unique pieces of art and utilities. Coconut shell handicrafts are one of the main eco-friendly products that are available in the market. Gandhi (2021).

It is always known that cleanliness is next to godliness and health is wealth good. Good health is achieved if there is good management of the environment. The need of good management of the environment cannot be over emphasized. Since there is a continuing environmental decay as a result of increased urbanization. For generation, Limbe has been a bastion of the famous coconut fruit and Limbe people invest in this White Gold called Coconut. Only local demand for coconut oil by vendors in Limbe beats local supply hence supplies come from other towns or are imported Ebenezar Ndumbe Haddison (2021). Pollution is a major problem of urbanization of which most of the cause have been identified as industrial combustion, solid waste generation, oil spillage disposal, agricultural waste. Since these causes are inevitable; There is need for a good control of them. Managing waste to reduce its negative impact on environment has become one of the paramount challenges of the present century. Exponential population growth, rapid urbanization and increases in environmentally destructive activities have led to an increase in the amount of waste generated by society. Therefore, organizations, communities and individuals have to find ways of managing these wastes in order to preserve and benefit from their ecosystem. Waste is generally known to be generated from range of human and animal activities, production processes to consumption stage. Lew, Christopher (2017). Waste in our community is as a result of household, industrial and commercial activity. The volume of waste generated requires that, waste must be efficiently managed so as to reduce its adverse impact on human populations. In light of this, varied efforts have been made by authorities globally, to managed a significant challenge to developing nations in the past decade. In Cameroon waste management has been a tough task for local authorities just as waste creation has been on the increase. Douala’s rapid population growth has contributed to the numerous municipal waste management problems facing the country.

The increase in population has also led to an increase in activities that create waste. Studies reveal that about 2800 metric tons of municipal solid waste is generated daily in Douala and an excess of 600tons liquid waste, which often results in flooding during the raining season. Even worsening is the fact that, most of the public owned and public managed sewage and fecal treatment plants are non-functional. The situation regarding waste in Cameroon is so severe that, visitors to the economic capital city, Douala will often observe the problem of management problem through heaps of uncontrolled rubbish, plastics, and liquid disposal locations overflowing with filth. Among other dangers this [poses to society, this level of waste management issue has a huge negative impact on the health of populations within the environment. Studies have shown that an increase in income levels and urbanization rates correlate with an increase in waste production .Kaza (2018).According to Kaza (2018),waste in lower income countries has a 39% rate of collection; waste in low- income countries is often managed by households and a substantial proportion of this waste at times up to 93% is openly dumped. Other popular low- income methods for waste management include sending waste to landfills, recycling. Improvement in waste collection services can lead to a reduction in pollution and improve human health. Kaza, (2018). The responsibility of waste management in Cameroon was vested in the hands of the Municipal Waste Department before the recent increased participation by private sector companies. However, despite private sector participation, there has not been any significant improvement in agricultural waste due to a number of constraints. One of the abundant agricultural waste materials (biofibres) in tropical countries is coconut shells. Science agriculture reported that the production of coconut worldwide was about 61 million tons in 2019 Coconut shell contains 34% cellulose, 21% hemicellulose, and 27% lignin . Previous studies showed that the coconut shell was potentially a filler to form a composite.

 Singh formed a coconut shell composite using epoxy resin. The size of particles was 212–850 µm. The compositions of coconut shell particles were 20, 30, 40 wt.%. The mechanical properties of the composite decreased as for the composition 40 wt.% of fillers. Bhaskar studied composite made of coconut shell particles (200–800 µm) and epoxy resin. They reported that the ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity of composites decreased as the compositions of coconut shells were increased. The coconut tree provides food, fuel, cosmetics, folk medicine and building materials, among many other uses. The inner flesh of the mature seed, as well as the coconut milk extracted from it, form a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called coconut water or coconut juice Khuzaiah S, (2015). Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, and the oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics. Sweet coconut sap can be made into drinks or fermented into palm wine or coconut vinegar. The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decoration Madhavan ( 2017).The coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in the Western Pacific Austronesian cultures where it features in their mythologies, songs, and oral traditions. It also had ceremonial importance in pre-colonial animistic religions.] It has also acquired religious significance in South Asian cultures, where it is used in Hindu rituals. It forms the basis of wedding and worship rituals in Hinduism. It also plays a central role in the Coconut Religion of Vietnam. The falling of their mature fruit has led to preoccupation with death by coconut Coconut (Cocos nucifera) is highly nutritious and rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals Sairam (2018).

There are only two distinct varieties of coconut in Ghana, the tall varieties and the dwarf varieties. Wastes that are generated from this fruit are classified as agricultural waste or solid waste. Researchers all over the world today are focusing on ways of utilising agricultural wastes as a source of raw material for the industry. The wastes utilization would not only be economical, but may also result in foreign exchange earnings and environmental pollution control . Aigbodion et al., (2016) Coconut shell is an agricultural waste and is available in very large quantities in most tropical countries. Moreover, coconut is becoming an important agricultural product for tropical countries around the world as a new source of bioenergy Bamgboye (2016). The problems caused by solid waste in urban Africa is largely due to the explosive growth rates, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, which eventually translates into generation of copious amounts of solid waste Money et al., (2014). Coconut is produced in 92 countries worldwide on about 11.8 million hectares’ land. World production has been estimated at 62,450,192 tones with an average yield of 5.14 tons per hectare. FAOSTAT, (2015). Coconut is used for many purposes in fields such as agriculture, health, environment, mining and industry.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Coconut sellers dump coconut shells and husks after close of business and this has contributed to the waste management problem in Cameroon. Solid waste management in Cameroon has become a challenge affecting the lives of every ordinary person of the country as well as the environment. The potential of coconut crop has been grossly under-utilized in Cameroon. Many Cameroonians have not fully discovered the enormous economic potential and uses of coconut. Coconut shells, which were mainly considered waste, can be used as raw materials and by-products for the production of handicrafts for decorative and utilitarian purposes. The good thing about coconut shell products is that they are hard and durable. It does not break easily and lasts long enough. It is not only a natural product but also 100% environmentally friendly and sustainable.

 Coconut shells are an agricultural waste product and are available in large quantities in tropical countries around the world. In many countries, coconut shells are burned outdoors, which contributes significantly to carbon dioxide and methane emissions causing pollution in the environment. It is very ironical that such an economic crop grows in communities where thousands of people are stricken with poverty. There is a huge economic potential of coconut and its waste products which has remained largely untapped in Cameroon. For example, activated charcoal produced from coconut shells, has a huge economic value in the mining industry. Therefore, there is the need for continuous research into the quantity of coconut waste that can be generated and how the wastes are managed using them to produce charcoal, pots, spoons, tea cups, jar, soap dish .Eyzaguirre. (2016) Coconut is one of the leading commodities in agricultural exports; the production programmed of the crop is of critical importance in improving the efficient use of resources. In the past years and till date, I have discovered that people litre coconut shells around the communities of kumba, Limbe, Kribi, Douala, which serve as an agricultural waste in the community. This agricultural waste which is the coconut shells can be recycle to other home equipment’s such as cups, teacups, jars, plates with these equipment’s it will help to reduced the waste in the society. I came up with this research because I want to sensitize the community on how to produce teacups and a jar from the waste agricultural products (coconut shells). After the consumption of the sweet white flesh inside at homes, the cleaners of this coconut shells tends to cause littering in the towns and cities hence  causing hazard. In order to reduce these hazards, I think recycling them in the production of teacups and a jar. In trying to recycle these coconut shells, so many jobs can be created as people employed both at the level of collecting and treating the coconut shells and also recycling them in to final products that is teacups and a jar.


The following research questions are:

  • Can teacups, saucers and a jar be produced from coconut shells?

  •  Can the coconut shell be treated?


1.4.1 Main objectives

The main objective is to: produce teacups, saucers and jars from coconut shells.

1.4.2. Specific objectives

The specific objectives are:

  • To collect and treat coconut shells
  • To transform the shells to tea cups, saucers and jars
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