An assessment on the knowledge, attitude and practice of water management among the residents of Owe community
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Background: The effects of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) affect every aspect of health and development, hinder economic and social development, and constitute a major hurdle to poverty alleviation. Many communicable diseases can be effectively managed by improving WASH practices. Waterborne disease prevalence can be reduced through implementing the three key WASH practices. Safe disposal of faeces and hand washing with soap at critical times can reduce the prevalence of waterborne diseases by 30%and 40%, respectively. Likewise, safe treatment and storage of drinking water can reduce the prevalence of waterborne diseases by 30–50%.
Materials/Method: A descriptive community-based cross-sectional study design with a quantitative approach was used to carry out this study title assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice on water management among residents of the Owe community from the period of November 2022 to April 2023 among the residents of the Owe community with a simple random sampling technique to select the participants.
Results: This study revealed that the knowledge of the inhabitants of the Owe community is high and there is a generally positive attitude of the inhabitants towards water management although the study also revealed a generally poor level of practice on water management.
Conclusion: Thus, the provision of quality education and supervision by community health workers and hygiene and sanitation experts on the practice of water management, as well as the sources, will go a long way to reduce and prevent the complications that result from poor water management practice.
This section will be talking about the background of the study, the statement of the problem, objectives, research question, significance of the study, justification of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms.
The effects of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) affect every aspect of health and development, hinder economic and social development, and constitute a major hurdle to poverty alleviation (BhatiaR, et al, 2018). Many communicable diseases can be effectively managed by improving WASH practices. Waterborne disease prevalence can be reduced through implementing the three key WASH practices. Safe disposal of faeces and hand washing with soap at critical times can reduce prevalence of waterborne diseases by 30%and 40%, respectively. Likewise, safe treatment and storage of drinking water can reduce the prevalence of waterborne diseases by 30–50% (Carrera-Hernandez JJ, 2008).
Lack of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on WASH is one of the most imperative causes for transmission of infectious diseases (Merrey DJ. 2005). Effectiveness of WASH depends not only on the provision of WASH facilities but also, and most importantly, on the compliance of individuals. Unless people have adequate KAP in relation to WASH, mere access to the services is not sufficient to mitigate health problems related to unsafe water, poor sanitation, and hygiene (Aquastat, 2007). The extent of safe WASH practices can be determined by the people’s knowledge and attitudes towards WASH. Certain Areas have been implementing WASH projects such as One WASH and as a package of health extension programs, and it has been implemented since 2003 by considering its significance for the protection of public health and reducing WASH-related mortality and morbidity (Olivry JC., 2013). Despite continued efforts of WASH programs, frequent WASH-related epidemics including acute watery diarrhea (AWD) are still persistent with high proportions in the regions (Sigha-Nkamdjou et al, 2018).
Globally, 2.3 billion people lack basic sanitation (892million people practiced open defecation), 844 million people lack basic drinking water, and 2.5 million people lack of improved sanitation (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2012). In developing countries, WASH is one of the most important felt needs in public health in this 21st century. However, about 842,000 people die as a result of inadequate WASH each year, representing 58% of the total diarrheal deaths (Oregon State University, 2002).
In sub-Saharan Africa,WASH remains one of the major public health challenges with very low coverage. Nearly, half of the population (319 million) does not use WASH facilities, 58% in sub-Saharan Africa lack basic drinking water, and only 15% have hand washing facilities with soap and water (Yilma E., 2007).
Cameroon is among several countries in West and Central Africa experiencing recurrent cholera outbreaks. Between 29 October 2021 and 30 April 2022, a total of 6652 suspected cases including 134 deaths (case fatality ratio 2%) have been reported. Several risk factors can be attributed to the ongoing cholera outbreaks in Cameroon, including wide circulation of Vibrio cholerae in the country, limited access to safe drinking water in some areas, a seasonal pattern of cholera occurrence and inadequate WASH conditions.As of 30 April, the South-West region continues to be the most affected region with 4617 cases (69%) including 77 deaths (CFR 1.6%), of which 4069 cases (88%) were reported in 2022. Littoral is the second most affected region with 1704 (26%) cases and 51 deaths (CFR 3%), including 1684 (99%) cases reported in 2022. (WHO, 2022)
In Ethiopia, the 2016 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) report indicated that only 57% of the households (HHs) in rural areas obtain their drinking water from improved sources and 39% have no toilet facility. The prevalence of diarrhea episodes in the community was reported to be 12% (DHS, 2016)
The rural area of Owe community which is under the Muyuka subdivision and in Fako division has many problems which the people in this area face. As observed by the researcher, some of the problems are as a result of poor water management which has led to several health conditions such as dysentery, typhoid, cholera, and diarrhea. The Owe community is characterized by rivers and streams as a sources of drinking water therefore, there is a need to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice on water management.
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of water management among the residents of Owe community.
1) To assess the knowledge of water management among the residents of Owe community.
2) To examine the attitude towards water management among the residents of the Owe community.
3) To evaluate the practice of water management among the residents of Owe community.
1) What is the knowledge of water management among the residents of Owe community?
2) What is the attitude towards water management among the residents of Owe community?
3) What are the practices of water management among residents of Owe community?
1) To the residents of Owe
It will create awareness to the residents of Owe community on the various ways in which they can keep their water sources in good conditions so as to reduce the consequences cause by poor water management.
To the researcher
It will give her an insight to the concept of proper water management and it will also increase her skills and knowledge in research.
The Owe community is a rural community that has no pipe-borne water as observed by the researcher. They rely total on underground water sources like rivers and streams which has left the residents with several water-borne diseases like dysentery, typhoid, diarrhea due to the nature and structures of the rivers. An assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice on water management will help reduces the consequences that follows poor water management in the Owe community.
A descriptive community based cross-sectional study design with a quantitative approach was used to carry out this study title assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice on water management among residents of the Owe community from the period of November 2022 to April 2023 among the residents of the Owe community who were present during the research period. The Owe community is a rural community located in Muyuka, characterized by rivers and streams as a source of drinking water with about 1500-2000 inhabitants.
According World Health Organization , it is something that we learn , understood and aware of it (WHO, 2022).
According to World Health Organization, it is a disposition or tendency to respond positively to or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, situation or person (WHO, 2022).
It is the act of rehearsing a behavior repeatedly, to help learn and eventually master a skill (WHO, 2022)
It is the process of planning, developing and managing the water resources, in terms of both quantity and quality across all water sources (WHO, 2022)
Having an idea on how to properly handle water resources in other to prevent diseases
It is the behavior of people in relation to water management
It is the act of preserving and keeping water and water sources clean and free from contaminations