the role that the UNVDA plays in the cultivation of rice in the Ndop plain
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The research project set ou to identify and analyze the role that the UNVDA plays in the cultivation of rice in the Ndop plain. The mean objective of the research was to examine and analyze the trends and pattern of rice production, with the specific object no the assist, the constraint how to enhance rice production Ndop plain. The research was carry out with a combination of two methodologies which are the quantitative and qualitative methods. This method give the advantage of complementing both methods by closing the gaps using questionnaire and interviews on the objectives. Based on findings, 70%of the respondents proposed that the UNVDA has been of great support in the cultivation and production of rice in the Ndop plain while 30% do not think the UNVDA have been of any help in the production of rice in the Ndop plain as most of the maintenance of the drainage system used for water circulation is always maintain the farmers themselves without the support of the UNVDA.
1.1Background of the study
Globally, the history of rice cultivation is long and complicated. The current scientific consensus, based on archaeological and linguistic evidence is that oryza sativa rice first domesticated in Yangtze River basin in China between 700-5000BCE. From that first cultivation, migration and trade spread Rice around the world-first, East Asia,and then further abroad, and eventually to the America as the Colombian exchange. The now less common oryza glaberrimarice was independently domesticated in Africa 3000-3500 years ago. Other wild rice have also be cultivated in different geographies, such as in the America.
Since it spread, rice has become a global staple crop important to food security and food culture around the world. More recent changes in agricultural practice and breeding method as part of the Green Revolution and other transfer of agricultural technology has led to increase in production in recent decades,with emergence of new types such as golden rice which was genetically engineer to contain beta carotene.(Adam,2022)In Cameroon rice cultivation, dates as far back as the colonial era since its independence in 1960, Cameroon have enjoyed better rate of growth in the rice sector than most other countries.The record , however is one of stability rather than growth. The production showed a spectacular evolution during the period from 1960 to 1985, in terms of cultivated areas and grain yields. However, rice prices dropping in the 1990, followed by an economic crises and the devaluation of of the local currency, the C.F.A in 1994, Cameroon self-sufficiency in rice production to dependence on import and eventually food aid .
In 2005, the production supplied only 13% of Cameroonian consumption. Since the difference in demand is made up by imports which are continually increasing. Spacial attention need to be given to developing rice production in the country.(Piebiep,2008).
Ndop is a swamp alluvial plain located in the Ngoketunjia Division in the North West Region of Cameroon which is involved in the cultivation of rice in Cameroon. It has a massive exploitable surface area of about 22,500 hectares of which only 2984.7 hectares are currently exploited. (SEDT, 2011).
The Upper Noun Valley Development Authority (UNVDA) is based in the area and is charged with transforming wet lands (swamps and marshy areas) through drainage for irrigation purposes. Most Ndop rice farmers are small holders and employ intensive labour practice in place of mechanization. With huge population and food insecurity made worst by lingering effect of global financial crises and climate change, a viable option is to create food surpluses by increasing land production (MINADER,2009).
Production of is carried out alongside other crops like maize,beans and others. Production of rice is done only in for season, generally starting in June with the nursery and ending in December with harvest. Rice varieties cultivated in the Ndop plain include; TOX Thianine,Nerica L42 and Nerica L56 (Swamp rice) and Nerica L3(upland rice). (IRAD,2008).
Rice cultivation activities are facilitated in this plain b the existence for means of agricultural mechanization, transportation facilities (farm road,farm to market roads) and irrigation and drainage possibilities especially with the Bamenjim, and numerous river and streams that water in the rice fields. Fertile soil from neighbouring hill deposited in the plain by erosion water.
The amount of rainfall is also an advantage. 80%of the population of Ndop are farmers. The benefit from the existence of a large arable land. (Cheo, 2014).
1.2 Statement of Problem.
Even though UNVDA plays an important role in the production of rice in the Ndop plain, the are some problems which contribute to low production of rice cultivation in some part of the Ndop plain. Some of these problems are poor drainage which leads to flood in some areas and other areas completely without water making it dry and difficult to plant rice in such areas. Also some areas are cultivated wit the help of human labour the used of tractors is less effective in many areas which some time s leads to poor yielding in some areas.
Farmer during the implementation of extension have no room to participate in extension policy. The farmers information receivers but not information provider to the extension workers and researchers. This is seen when it come to including the needs of the farmers in the system. Information between the farmers and the organization flow in one direction or in a vertical form. That is information flows from the researcher/extension workers to the farmers that ultimately affect the knowledge between the farmers and the researcher (UNVDA). In the absence of information exchange between the farmers and the UNVDA, it often lead to the production of low output in rice cultivation in the Ndop plain.
1.3 Research Questions
- What are the trends and pattern of rice production in the Ndop plain?
- In which ways does the UNVDA assist in rice production in the Ndop plain?
- What are the constraint faced by the UNVDA in enhancing rice production the Ndop plain?
- How can UNVDA effectively play a role in enhancing production in the Ndop?
1.4 research Objective
- To examine and analyze the trends and patterns of rice production in the Ndop plain.
- To assess ways in which the UNVAD assist in rice production in the Ndop plain.
- To examine and analyze the constraint faced by UNVDA in enhancing rice production in the Ndop plain.
- To study ways in which the UNVDA can effectively play in the role production of rice in the Ndop plain.